Ambiyawa

'yan amshi

Ambiyawa dabbobi ne masu rarrafe An sanye su da fatar jikinsu, ba tare da sikeli ba.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu bayyana duk asirin waɗannan dabbobin, farawa da haifuwa na amphibians, nau'ikan amphibians da suke wanzu, wasu misalai da sauran abubuwan sha'awa wadanda tabbas zasu amfane ku sosai.

Sake bugun amphibians

'yan amshi

Da yake oviparous, haifuwa na amphibians na kwai ne. Dabbobi masu rarrafe da dabbobi masu shayarwa suna haihuwar daga takin ciki (a cikin mace) yayin da amphibians ke aiki hadi na waje.

La takin amphibian yana faruwa ne a cikin ruwa mai kyau, saboda wannan nau'in ruwan zai zama wanda ke kare kwayayen a yayin ci gaban su kuma ya baiwa amphibians damar bukatar hadewar amfrayo, kamar su amniotic sac ko allantois, saboda haka wasu halaye wadanda suka banbanta da sauran amphibians na kashin baya na duniya.

Yin takin zamani ga halittar waje yana biye da sifa ce: namiji yana rike da mace, wacce ke kwan kwan. Kamar yadda wadannan suka fito, Namiji ya tafi zubda maniyyinsu akansu da takin. Qwai suna zama a cikin ruwa mai igiyar ruwa ko kuma a haɗe da ciyayi na cikin ruwa. Tsutsar ruwa masu ruwa ta sake fitowa daga garesu.

Iyo

Duk a cikin kifi da amphibians, wanda hadi daga waje ya fi yawa, qwai suna da siririn murfi, Tunda maniyyi dole ne ya ratsa shi don haka hadi ya gudana. A saboda wannan dalili, dole ne a sanya waɗannan ƙwai a cikin ruwa a manne da juna, suna yin gungu masu yawa.

Amphibians an haifesu azaman tsutsa da ke cikin ruwa wanda ke motsawa da jela kuma yana numfasawa ta gill. Lokacin da tsutsa, wacce ake kira tadpole, ta girma yadda yakamata, sai a fara aiwatar da ita total metamorphosis. Ban da wasu nau'ikan kwadi na dazuzzuka, waɗannan abubuwan a ƙarshe za su ɓace kuma a maye gurbinsu da huhu da ƙafafu yayin da tadpoles ke girma.

Wannan rukunin amphibians na vertebrate an haɗasu kwadi, toads, salamanders da kuma masu raƙuman ruwa. Wadannan amphibians din suna da ikon rayuwa a ciki da wajen ruwa, kodayake suna bukatar jika a koyaushe saboda shine hanyar numfashin su.

Dabbobin Ambiya, menene su?

Kwarin rana

A Latin kalmar amphibian tana da mahimmin ma'ana, a zahiri tana nufin “rayuka biyu”. Kuma wannan shine keɓaɓɓiyar halittar waɗannan dabbobin, masu dacewa da daidaitawa da aiwatar da ayyukansu na ilimin halitta a ciki halittu daban-daban guda biyu: filin ƙasa da yankunan ruwa. Koyaya, za mu ɗan ƙara bincika ƙarin ma'anar amphibian.

Amphibians ɓangare ne na wannan babban gidan rayayyun halittu waɗanda aka keɓe azaman kashin baya (suna da kasusuwa, wato kwarangwal na ciki) anamniotes (Embryo dinka ya bunkasa zuwa envelop guda hudu daban-daban: chorion, allantois, amnion, da kuma jakar kwai, yana samar da yanayi mai ruwa wanda yake shakar abinci da shi a ciki), tetrapods (suna da gaɓoɓi huɗu, motar asibiti ko magudi) kuma mai yanayin ruwa (Suna da zafin jiki mai canzawa).

Suna shan wahala lokacin da ake kira metamorphosis (canjin da wasu dabbobi keyi yayin cigaban ilimin halittar su kuma hakan yana shafar yanayin halittar su da ayyukansu da salon rayuwar su). Daga cikin shahararrun canje-canjen da aka samu shine wucewa daga gills (sabo) zuwa huhu (manya).

Nau'in amphibians

Newt, ɗayan sanannen nau'in amphibians

Triton

A cikin wannan babban dangin da amphibians suka girka, zamu iya yin ƙaramin tsari bisa umarni uku: anurans, caudates o urodeles y apodal o motsa jiki.

da anurans Nau'ikan amphibians ne waɗanda aka haɗasu tare da duk waɗancan amphibians ɗin da muka sani da yawa kamar kwadi da toads. Yi hankali, kwado da toad ba jinsinsu ɗaya bane. An haɗa su tare ta kamanceceniya da halayensu.

da urodeles Su wasu nau'ikan amphibians sun banbanta ta hanyar samun doguwar wutsiya da tsayi mai tsayi. Idanunsu basu wuce gona da iri ba kuma fata mai kyau ce take rufe su. Anan zamu sami sabbin, salamanders, proteos da mermaids.

A ƙarshe, akwai nau'ikan amphibians na apodal, waxanda sune mafi mahimmancin komai saboda bayyanar su. Suna kama da tsutsa ko kwarjin duniya saboda basu da wata gabar jiki kuma jikinsu yana da tsawo.

Halayen Amphibian

Adawan maraƙi

Kamar yadda muka fada a baya, amphibians dabbobi ne masu rarrafe, kuma suna da "gatan" kasancewa mafi m na wannan ajin dabbobin da ke zaune duniya. An ce sun kasance kusan shekaru miliyan 300, kusan babu komai!

Suna da gaɓoɓi huɗu: biyu gaba da baya biyu. Wadannan gabobin jiki sanannun sanannen suna ne na qurido. Quiridus ana siffanta shi da yanayin ilimin halittar jikin mutum, mai yatsu huɗu akan ƙafafun na gaba biyar kuma a bayan. Yawancin sauran amphibians suma suna da na biyar irin na farkon.

Kasancewa masu rai na jini mai sanyi, zafin jikinsu ya dogara, kuma da yawa, ga yanayin da suke, tunda ba za su iya daidaita zafinsu na ciki ba. Wannan shine ɗayan abubuwan da ke haifar da ƙaƙƙarfan ƙarfin da ya sa suka saba da rayuwa a cikin ruwa da ƙasa. Wadannan tsarin guda biyu suna taimaka maka ka guji zafin jiki ko sanyaya jikinka.

Son oviparousyayin da suke ƙyanƙyashewa daga ƙwai. Mace ce ke kula da sanya waɗannan ƙwai kuma koyaushe tana yin hakan ne a cikin yanayin ruwa, saboda haka samarin suna da tsarin numfashi wanda yake da ma'auni.

Fatar wadannan kwayoyin halittar ita ce m, kasancewar ana iya ratsawa ta wasu kwayoyin, gas da sauran kwayoyin. Wasu nau'ikan suna iya fitar da abubuwa masu guba ta hanyar fatarsu a matsayin tsarin kariya daga hatsarin waje.

Ko da mayar da hankali kan fata, ya kamata a lura cewa wannan ita ce damp kuma an lalata shi da sikeli, sabanin sauran nau'in dabbobi da ke dauke su. Wannan yanayin yana basu damar shan ruwa yadda yakamata kuma, saboda haka, oxygen. Akasin haka, yana sanya su zama masu saurin fuskantar ayyukan jin dadi. Idan amphibian tana cikin yanayin rashin yanayin zafi, fatarsa ​​zata bushe da sauri, wanda hakan na iya haifar da matsaloli masu tsanani har ma da mutuwa.

Wadannan dabbobin suna da tsarin jini wanda babban sashin su shine tricameral zuciya hada da atria biyu da kuma ventricle. An sake zagayawar wurin, ninki biyu kuma bai cika ba.

Idanun yawanci ƙato ne, kuma, a'a, kumburi ne, wanda ke sauƙaƙa a babban filin ra'ayi dacewa sosai lokacin farautar yuwuwar ganima. Akwai banda kamar sababbi.

Kodayake bazai yi kama da shi ba, amphibians suna da hakora, kodayake waɗannan ba safai ba. Aikinta shine don taimakawa riƙe abinci. Harshen kuma ya zama cikakken kayan aiki don kama wasu ƙananan dabbobi. Suna gabatar da a tubular mai siffar ciki, tare da karamin hanji, kodoji biyu, da mafitsara ta fitsari.

Misalan amphibians

Salamander

Salamander

A halin yanzu, akwai jerin sunayen wasu 3.500 nau'ikan amphibians. Koyaya, masana kimiyya, a ƙididdigar su, suna hasashen cewa jimlar adadin na iya kasancewa a kusa da 6.400.

Lokacin da muke tunani game da amphibians, hoton kwado ko toad koyaushe yana bayyana a cikin kawunanmu, amma kuma muna da wasu dabbobi kamar sababbi da salamanders.

Waɗannan 'yan misalai ne na amphibians, kodayake, tabbas, akwai ƙari da yawa:

Anderson salamander (Ambystoma andersoni)

Wannan nau'in salamander ana kuma san shi da axolotl ko purepecha achoque. Jinsi ne na asali, ma'ana, kawai yana wanzu a wani wuri. A wannan yanayin, yana zaune ne kawai a cikin Lagoon Zacapu, wanda ke cikin jihar Michoacán (Mexico).

Yawanci yana da halin kasancewa da kaurin jiki, gajeren jela da gill. Launin lemo ko na ja, wanda aka ƙara zuwa baƙaƙen tabo wanda ya bazu a duk ilahirin jikinsa, ya sa ba a kula da shi.

Marbled Newt (Triturus marmoratus)

Wannan dabbar ta fi yawa a yankin Turai, musamman a arewacin Spain da gabashin Faransa. Yana da launin launin kore tare da sautunan kore masu ban mamaki. Bugu da kari, bayanta yana ketare ta wani layin tsaye na musamman na jan launi.

Toad na kowa (Bufo bufo)

Abu ne sananne a same shi a kusan duk nahiyar Turai da wani yanki na Asiya. Ya fi son mazaunin da ke cikin ruwa mai tsafta, wuraren ban ruwa, da dai sauransu. Wataƙila, kasancewa mai tsayayya ga yanayin rayuwa a cikin ruwan da ba shi da tsabta ya sanya shi ɗayan sanannen sanannen amphibians. Ba shi da launuka masu haske, amma dai fatarsa ​​ta sautin "launin ruwan kasa" ce, wacce kumbura da yawa ta rufe ta da warts.

Vermilion kwado (Rana temporaria)

Kamar danginsa da aka ambata a sama, wannan amphibian shima ya sanya Turai da Asiya gidansu. Kodayake ya fi son wurare masu ɗumi, wannan kwadin yana cinye lokacinsa sosai daga ruwa. Ba ya cikin tsayayyen tsarin launi, amma kowane mutum na iya gabatar da launuka daban-daban. Duk da wannan, fatar launin ruwan kasa mai ƙanƙanin tabo na da yawa. Hancin hancin da aka nuna ɗayan alama ce.

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