ʻO Osmoregulation

Carp wai wai hou me ka osmoregulation

ʻO kekahi o nā kaʻina hana olaola i loko o nā mea ola, a ma mua o nā mea āpau, no ka poʻe e noho ana i nā kaiaolaola osmoregulation, ʻike ʻia ʻo koʻo osmotic.

ʻO nā hopena metabolic āpau e pono ai no ke ola e hana i kahi medium aqueous a wai paha. No ka hana pololei o kēia mau hopena, pono ia i nā paʻa o ka wai a solutes (kēlā mau mea hoʻohaʻahaʻa molekika haʻahaʻa e kōkua i ka mālama ʻana i ka koʻo osmotic) oscillate ma waena o nā palena liʻiliʻi, i ke kaʻina i kapa ʻia osmoregulation

Hiki iā mākou ke wehewehe i ka osmoregulation e like me ke ʻano e mālama ai i ka homeostasis o ke kino, ʻaʻohe mea ʻē aʻe ma mua o ka hiki o nā meaola ola ke mālama i ko lākou ʻano kūloko e pili ana i nā loli i kū i waho ma o ka hoʻololi o ka mea a me ka ikehu me ka mea like.

Pili kēia mau mea āpau i ka hoʻoneʻe ʻia o nā solutes i nā wai kūloko a me nā mea i ke kaiapuni. Alakaʻi kēia iā mākou i ke kānāwai o ka neʻe ʻana o ka wai e pāʻani ana i kahi kuleana nui.

Lawe ʻia kēia kānāwai o ka neʻe ʻana o ka wai e osmosis, kahi hanana kino e pili ana i ka neʻe ʻana o kahi wai hoʻoheheʻe i hele i waena o kahi membrane semi-permeable. Kū aʻe kēia hanana ma muli o kahi diffusion maʻalahi ʻaʻole koi i nā lilo ikehu a lilo i mea koʻikoʻi no ka metabolism o ka cellular pono o nā mea ola.

I ka pōkole, a ma ke ʻano he hōʻuluʻulu manaʻo laulā, ka osmoregulation kōkua iā mākou e hana i nā concentrations o solutes i loko o nā meaola (laʻana: nā hunaola) a me ke kaiapuni e hoʻopuni iā ​​lākou, mālama i ke kaulike iā ia iho ma o ka neʻe ʻana a me ke kahe e hele i kēlā me kēia membrane semi-permeable. ʻO kēlā ʻano kūlana e ʻae iā mākou e hoʻoponopono i ka puʻe osmotic (kaomi i kau ʻia i mea e hoʻokū ai i kahi kahe o ka mea hoʻoheheʻe e komo i loko o kahi membrane).

ʻO ke kaulike osmotic i nā holoholona

iʻa kai

I ka hapanui o nā holoholona, ​​nā wai e hoʻolako i nā hunaola isosmotic hoʻohālikelike ʻia i nā wai e noho pū i loko o nā hunaola. He aha ke ʻano o kēia? ʻĀ, he wai nā wai o loko a me waho o nā hunaola puʻe osmotic like loa. Pale aku kēia i ka hunaola mai ka pehu nui ʻana, e like me ka mea e kū ai i ka hoʻonā hip hoponic, a i ʻole ka mimiki, kekahi mea e hana i ka nā hopena hypertonic.

Hiki iā ia ke mālama i kēlā mau wai isosmotic Ma nā ʻaoʻao ʻelua o ka membrane plasma, ʻo ka mea a lākou e hana ai e hoʻohana i ka nui o ka ikehu a lākou e hoʻokele ai e pauma iā Na + mai loko aʻe o ka pūnaewele ma o ka lawe ikaika ʻana.

ʻIke nā pūnaewele holoholona i ka a kūlohelohe isosmotic kahi ala kūpono no kāna hana kūpono a me kāna hoʻomohala ʻana. I kekahi ʻaoʻao, ʻaʻole like me nā mea kanu. Loaʻa nā hunaola i loaʻa i loko o ka kūlohelohe isosmotic hiki iā lākou ke ʻeha i ka lilo nui o turgor, no ka mea hiki i kēia mau keena ke hoʻopaʻa i loko o kā lākou paia o nā paia i nā kiʻekiʻe o nā solute e loaʻa ai iā lākou ka nui a me ka paʻa.

Osmorregulation i nā holoholona wai

koʻo osmotic

Ua hiki i nā holoholona wai ke hoʻololi i ka amalgam ākea o nā wahi noho, mai ke kai hou (me nā mea liʻiliʻi loa solutes) i ka wai salinity kiʻekiʻe (nui o solutes). ʻO kēia ka mea i alo i nā pilikia o ka hoʻoponopono ʻana o ka koʻo osmotic hoʻokaʻawale loa mai kekahi i kekahi. Eia hou, he mea kūpono ke haʻi ʻana i kēlā me kēia laha a i ʻole nā ​​meaola i hana i loko o kahi o ka osmotic concentration o ke kaiapuni i hāʻawi ʻia.

I kēia hihia, hiki iā mākou ke hoʻokaʻawale ma waena o:

  • Pinholes: nā meaola e hoʻomanawanui i kahi ākea o ka paʻakai maʻamau o ka nohona kūwaho, me ka nānā ʻole inā he wai hou a wai wai paʻakai paha ia.
  • Eurihalinos: nā meaola e hoʻomanawanui i kahi o ka salinity ʻoi aku ka maʻamau o ka nohona kūwaho, me ka nānā ʻole inā he wai hou a wai wai paʻakai paha ia.

ʻO ka mea nui, aia ʻelua ala maʻamau e hoʻokō ai i ka mea i kakali ʻia osmoregulation.

Ma ka mua ua hōʻike ʻia mākou me ka osmoconformism, e pili ana i kēlā mau holoholona i koʻo osmotic kū mau me ke kaiapuni kahi a lākou e noho ai, e lilo ana i holoholona isosmitic me kona kūlohelohe. ʻO lākou nā meaola i ʻike nui ʻia i loko o ka wai hou, ʻoiai e hana ana kekahi i nā wai palekana ʻole i loaʻa ka salinity.

A, i ka lua o ka manawa, loaʻa iā mākou nā holoholona osmoregulators, kahi e hoʻāʻo ai e mālama i kēlā kaulike osmotic me ko lākou kaiapuni. Hōʻike kēia i ke kumukūʻai ikehu e ʻokoʻa e pili ana i ka permeability o ka ʻili a i waho loa o ka holoholona. E haʻi pū ʻia hoʻi inā ʻo ka osmolarity ʻoi aku ka nui o nā wai o ke kino ma mua o ke kaiapuni, ke alo nei mākou i kahi holoholona hyperosmotic. Eia naʻe, inā ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi, e ʻōlelo mākou he holoholona ia hypoosmotic.

Osmoregulation i ka iʻa wai hou

osmoregulation-wai-wai hou

I ka iʻa iʻa hou, ʻoi aku ka piʻina o ka ion i ko lākou kino ma mua o ka wai. ʻO kēia ke kumu o ka hoʻolaha mau ʻana o ka wai e komo i loko o ka epithelium o nā gills a me ke koena o kou kino i ka loko.

Hiki ke hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻia kēia i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o ke kōpaʻa o kēia hui iʻa e hoʻoulu i ka nui o ka mimi. Pono e hoʻohui i kēia i ka loaʻa ʻana o ka paʻakai o ka paʻakai i ka wai a lākou e noho ai, nalowale lākou uila uila, a lākou e uku ai i ka ʻimi ʻana i nā paʻakai ma o kā lākou gills.

ʻAtikala pili:
ʻO ka iʻa wai nui nui loa ma ka honua

ʻO Osmoregulation i ka iʻa wai paʻakai

osmoregulation-iʻa-marios

Ma ke kaʻina o osmoregulation ʻO ka iʻa wai paʻakai, a i ʻole iʻa kai, ʻo ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe heʻoiaʻiʻo ia o ko kā lākou mau wai wai ʻohana. I kēia hihia, ke kahe mau nei ka wai ma loko o ke kino o ka iʻa e hele ana i waho. ʻO ka ions hale kēlā i ka wai e komo i loko o ke kino o kēia holoholona ma o nā gills. Hiki i kēia ke alakaʻi i kahi pilikia koʻikoʻi, ʻaʻohe mea ʻē aʻe o ka makaʻu o ka make wai.

I mea e hōʻalo ai i ka make wai ʻole, komo mau ka iʻa kai i ka nui o ka wai, a kipaku ʻia nā paʻakai i waho i waho ma o ʻekolu ala: nā faz, mimi a me nā gills ponoʻī.

El koʻo osmotic, kahi priori, me he mea lā he mea paʻakikī loa a paʻakikī hoʻi e hoʻomaopopo. Eia nō naʻe, koʻikoʻi ia no ke ola, no ka mea, pili nā meaola āpau iā ia. He mea nui ia e ʻike ʻia e ka poʻe makemake i ka iʻa, ʻoiai kēia ala e hiki ai iā lākou ke hoʻomaopopo pono i ka hana kūloko o kā lākou holoholona. Lana ko mākou manaʻo ua hiki iā mākou ke kōkua iā ʻoe a wehewehe i kekahi mau kānalua e pili ana i kēia kumuhana luhi.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.