Amphibians

amphibiya

Amphibians ndi nyama zam'mbali Amadziwika ndi khungu lawo lopanda kanthu, opanda masikelo.

Munkhaniyi tifotokoza zinsinsi zonse za nyamazi, kuyambira ndi kubereka kwa amphibiya, mitundu ya amphibians yomwe ilipo, zitsanzo zina ndi zina zomwe mungakonde zothandiza kwa inu.

Kubalana kwa amphibians

amphibiya

Kukhala oviparous, kubereka kwa amphibiya ndi ya mazira. Zinyama ndi zinyama zimaberekana kuchokera ku umuna wamkati (mwa mkazi) pomwe amphibiya amachita umuna wakunja.

La umuna wa amphibian umapezeka m'madzi abwino, chifukwa madzi amtunduwu ndi omwe amateteza mazira pakukula kwawo ndipo amalola amphibiya kuti asafunike kuphatikiza ma embryonic, monga amniotic sac kapena allantois, chifukwa chake zina mwazomwe zimasiyana ndi ma amphibiya ena apadziko lapansi.

Kubereketsa thupi lakunja kumatsata mawonekedwe: wamwamuna amakhala ndi wamkazi, yemwe akuikira mazira. Pamene izi zimatuluka, yamphongo imapita kutaya umuna wawo pa iwo ndikuwaphatikiza. Mazira amakhalabe m'madzi omwe amapanga zingwe kapena amamangiriridwa kuzomera zam'madzi. Mphutsi zamadzi zimatulukiranso.

Chule losambira

Onse mwa nsomba ndi amphibiya, momwe umuna wakunja umakhalira, mazirawo amakhala ndi chivundikiro chochepa thupi, popeza umuna umayenera kuwoloka kuti umuna uchitike. Pachifukwa ichi, mazirawa amayenera kuikidwa m'madzi atalumikizana, ndikupanga masango akuluakulu.

Amphibians amabadwa ngati a Mphutsi yamadzi yomwe imayenda ndi mchira ndipo amapuma kudzera m'mitsempha. Pamene mphutsi yotchedwa tadpole, yakula mokwanira, imayamba kusintha kwathunthu. Kupatula mitundu yochepa ya achule a m'nkhalango zamvula, izi zimatha kutha ndipo zidzasinthidwa ndi mapapo ndi miyendo pamene tadpoles amakula.

Gulu ili la zamoyo zamtchire zam'madzi limapangidwa achule, achule, salamanders ndi caecilians zam'madzi. Ma amphibiyawa amatha kukhala m'madzi ndi kunja kwake, ngakhale amafunikira kukhala onyowa nthawi zonse popeza ndi njira yopumira.

Nyama za ku Amphibian, ndi chiyani?

Chule wamtengo

M'Chilatini mawu oti amphibian ali ndi tanthauzo lapadera, amatanthauza "miyoyo iwiri". Ndipo ichi ndi chodziwika bwino cha nyamazi, zomwe zimatha kusintha ndikusintha zochitika zawo zachilengedwe ziwiri zosiyana: kumtunda ndi madera am'madzi. Komabe, tikambirana pang'ono tanthauzo la amphibian.

Amphibians ndi gawo la banja lalikululi lazinthu zodziwika monga zinyama (ali ndi mafupa, ndiye kuti, mafupa amkati) anamniotes (Mluza wanu umasanduka ma envulopu anayi osiyanasiyana: chorion, allantois, amnion, ndi yolk sac, ndikupanga malo amadzi momwe amatha kupumira ndi kudyetsa), mayendedwe (ali ndi miyendo inayi, yoyendetsa kapena yosokoneza) ndipo ectothermic (Ali ndi kutentha thupi kosiyanasiyana).

Ali ndi nyengo yotchedwa kusintha (kusintha komwe nyama zina zimakumana nako pakukula kwachilengedwe ndipo zimakhudza momwe zimakhalira ndi machitidwe awo ndi moyo wawo). Zina mwazomwe zasintha kwambiri ndikudutsa kuchokera kumiyendo (yatsopano) kupita m'mapapu (akulu).

Mitundu ya amphibians

Newt, imodzi mwamagulu odziwika kwambiri amphibiya

Triton

M'banja lalikululi lomwe lili ndi amphibiya, titha kupanga gulu laling'ono potengera malamulo atatu: anurans, caudates o udaku y osasamala o masewera olimbitsa thupi.

ndi anurans Ndi mitundu ya amphibiya yomwe imagawidwa pamodzi ndi onse amphibiya omwe timawatcha kuti achule ndi achule. Samalani, chule ndi chule sizofanana. Amagawidwa palimodzi ndi kufanana kwawo ndi machitidwe awo.

ndi udaku Ndi mitundu ina ya amphibiya amasiyana ndikukhala ndi mchira wautali ndi thunthu lalitali. Maso awo sanakule kwambiri ndipo amaphimbidwa ndi khungu labwino. Apa tikupeza zatsopano, salamanders, ma proteos ndi mermaids.

Pomaliza, pali mitundu ya othamanga amphibiya, zomwe ndizapadera kwambiri chifukwa cha mawonekedwe awo. Amafanana kwambiri ndi nyongolotsi kapena nyongolotsi chifukwa alibe miyendo ndipo thupi lawo limakulitsidwa.

Makhalidwe a Amphibian

Ng'ombe yamphongo

Monga tanena kale, amphibiya ndi nyama zamtundu wambiri, ndipo ali ndi "mwayi" wokhala zachikale kwambiri mwa nyama zamtunduwu zomwe zimakhala padziko lapansi. Amati akhala akuzungulira zaka 300 miliyoni, pafupifupi palibe!

Ali ndi miyendo inayi: awiri kutsogolo ndi awiri kumbuyo. Miyendo iyi imadziwika ndi dzina losangalatsa la wokondedwa. Quiridus imadziwika ndi kukhala ndi morpholoji yofanana ndi dzanja la munthu, yokhala ndi zala zinayi kumiyendo yakutsogolo ndi isanu kumbuyo. Ma amphibiya ambiri alinso ndi chiwalo chachisanu chofanana ndi mchira.

Kukhala zamoyo za magazi ozizira, kutentha kwa thupi kumatengera, komanso kwambiri, malo omwe ali, popeza sangathe kuwongolera kutentha kwawo kwamkati. Ichi ndi chimodzi mwazomwe zimayambitsa kukakamiza kwakukulu komwe kwawatsogolera kuti azolowere moyo wam'madzi komanso pamtunda. Machitidwe awiriwa amakuthandizani kupewa kutentha kapena kuziziritsa thupi lanu.

Iwo ali oviparouspamene amatola mazira. Mkazi ndi amene amayang'anira kuyika mazira awa ndipo nthawi zonse amatero m'malo am'madzi, chifukwa chake zitsanzo zazing'ono zimakhala ndi dongosolo la kupuma lomwe lili ndi mamba.

Khungu la zamoyozi ndi chokwanira, wokhoza kuwoloka ndi mamolekyulu osiyanasiyana, mipweya ndi tinthu tina tating'ono. Mitundu ina imatha kubisa zinthu zakupha kudzera pakhungu lawo ngati chitetezo pangozi zakunja.

Ngakhale kuyang'ana khungu lanu, ziyenera kudziwika kuti ndi izi chinyontho ndi kukhalanso anthu mamba, mosiyana ndi mitundu ina ya nyama zomwe zimanyamula. Izi zimawalola kuyamwa bwino madzi ndipo, chifukwa chake, mpweya. M'malo mwake, zimawapangitsa kukhala pachiwopsezo chotengera cha kutaya madzi. Ngati amphibian ali pamalo opanda chinyezi, khungu lake limauma msanga, zomwe zingayambitse mavuto akulu ngakhale kufa kumene.

Nyamazi zimakhala ndizoyenda mozungulira zomwe gawo lawo lalikulu ndi mtima wa tricameral wopangidwa ndi atria awiri ndi ventricle. Kuyenda kwake kwatsekedwa, kawiri komanso kosakwanira.

Maso nthawi zambiri amakhala otupa ndipo, m'malo mwake, amatuluka, omwe amathandizira a gawo lalikulu lowonera yoyenera kwambiri posaka nyama yomwe ingatengeke. Pali zosiyana monga zatsopano.

Ngakhale sizikuwoneka ngati izo, amphibians ali ndi mano, ngakhale izi ndizochepa. Ntchito yake ndikuthandizira kusunga chakudyacho. Lilime limakhalanso chida chabwino kugwirira nyama zina zazing'ono. Amapereka fayilo ya chifuwa chowoneka ngati tubular, wokhala ndi matumbo akulu aafupi, impso ziwiri, ndi chikhodzodzo.

Zitsanzo za amphibiya

Salamander

Salamander

Pakadali pano, pali mindandanda mozungulira ena Mitundu 3.500 ya amphibiya. Komabe, asayansiwo, mu kuyerekezera kwawo, amaneneratu kuti chiwonkhetso chonse chitha kukhala mozungulira 6.400.

Tikaganiza za amphibiya, chithunzi cha chule kapena chule nthawi zonse chimawoneka m'mitu mwathu, koma timakhalanso ndi nyama zina monga ma newt ndi salamanders.

Izi ndi zitsanzo zochepa chabe za amphibiya, ngakhale, pali zowonjezereka:

Anderson salamander (Ambystoma andersoni)

Mtundu uwu wa salamander umadziwikanso kuti axolotl kapena purepecha achoque. Ndi mitundu yokhazikika, ndiye kuti imangopezeka m'malo ena. Pankhaniyi, amangokhala ku Zacapu Lagoon, yomwe ili m'chigawo cha Michoacán (Mexico).

Amadziwika kwambiri pokhala ndi thupi lokulirapo, mchira wawufupi ndi mitsempha. Mtundu wake wa lalanje kapena wofiira, wowonjezedwa pamadontho akuda omwe amafalikira padziko lonse lapansi, umapangitsa kuti usadziwike.

Marbled Newt (Triturus marmoratus)

Nyama iyi imapezeka makamaka mdera la Europe, makamaka kumpoto kwa Spain komanso kum'mawa kwa France. Ili ndi utoto wobiriwira womwe umatsagana ndi matani obiriwira obiriwira kwambiri. Kuphatikiza apo, nsana wake umawoloka ndi mzere wachilendo kwambiri wofiyira.

Ziweto wamba (Bufo bufo)

Ndizofala kuzipeza pafupifupi kontinenti yonse ya Europe ndi gawo lina la Asia. Amakonda malo okhala ndi madzi osayenda, madera othirira, ndi zina zambiri. Mwinanso, kukhala wolimbana kwambiri ndi moyo wam'madzi opanda ukhondo kwapangitsa kuti ikhale imodzi mwamadzi odziwika kwambiri. Ilibe mitundu yowala, koma khungu lake limakhala ndi mawu "ofiira", okutidwa ndi mabampu angapo amtundu wa njenjete.

Chule wa Vermilion (Rana temporaria)

Monga abale ake omwe atchulidwa pamwambapa, amphibian uyu wapanganso Europe ndi Asia kukhala kwawo. Ngakhale imakonda malo achinyezi, chuleyu amakhala nthawi yayitali atakhala m'madzi. Sikhala ya mtundu wokhazikika, koma munthu aliyense amatha kupereka mitundu yosiyanasiyana. Ngakhale izi, khungu lofiirira lomwe lili ndi mawanga ang'onoang'ono limakhala lalikulu. Mphuno yosongoka ndi imodzi mwazizindikiro zake.

Nkhani yowonjezera:
Ma amphibiya owopsa

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