Anthu aku Cnidarians

nsomba

Zina mwa zamoyo zakale kwambiri zomwe timapeza pansi pa nyanja tili nazo anthu achikondi. Ndi phylum yomwe imapangidwa ndi zamoyo zam'madzi ndipo dzina lake limachokera kumaselo ake omwe. Amatchedwa cnidocytes ndipo ndi zomwe zimapangitsa mitundu iyi kukhala yapadera. Pakadali pano pali mitundu 11.000 ya cnidarians yomwe imagawika m'magulu osiyanasiyana, genera ndi mitundu.

Munkhaniyi tikukuwuzani zamakhalidwe, malo okhala ndi mitundu yayikulu ya cnidarians.

Makhalidwe apamwamba a cnidarians

Mwa zamoyo zonse zomwe zimapanga gulu ili lazinyama timapeza miyala yamchere, jellyfish, anemones ndi madera. Mwa cnidarians timapeza nsomba zazikulu kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi. Izi ndi mitundu yam'madzi yomwe yakhala ikukwanitsa kupanga madera amadzi abwino. Nthawi zambiri amakhala a benthic komanso sessile omwe amatanthauza kuti amaletsa kuyenda. Zina mwazo ndizocheperako ndipo zimawerengedwa ngati planktonic. Kukula kwa nyamazi kumasiyanasiyana kuchokera pamiyeso yaying'ono kwambiri kupita kwina yopitilira 20 mita yomwe imaphatikizaponso mahema.

Izi ndi zamoyo zomwe zimakhala zofanana kwambiri ndipo ndizosawerengeka. Izi zikutanthauza kuti zimachokera m'masamba osiyanasiyana omwe amadziwika kuti ectoderm ndi endoderm. Chomwe chimadziwika kwambiri ndi cnidarians ndi khungu lobaya lomwe amalandiranso dzinali. Ndi za cnidocytes. Mawonekedwe ake ozungulira amatanthauza kuti magulu ena amathanso kukhala sinthani kuti mukhale wamitundu iwiri, tetraradial kapena mtundu wina wazofananira. Cnidocytes ndi maselo omwe amatha kuwombera ndikupha poizoni. Amagwiritsa ntchito kusaka komanso kudzitchinjiriza kwa adani.

Ali ndi gawo laling'ono lamagulu popeza alibe ziwalo. Makina am'mimba ndimphako woboola thumba wokhala ndi bowo limodzi lolowera ku chakudya ndi potuluka pazinthu zomwe sizinakumbidwe. Zoyeserera zimabwera mumitundu ingapo ya 6 kapena 8. Pokhala zamoyo zosakhalitsa samapereka cephalization. Mitundu yayikulu yamthupi yomwe timapeza mkati mwa phylum iyi ya nyama ndi: polyp and jellyfish.

Chinthu choyamba chomwe tiyenera kudziwa pakati pa kusiyana pakati pa polyp ndi jellyfish ndi kuyenda kwawo. Ngakhale polyp ndi sessile ndipo ili ndi mawonekedwe ozungulira, jellyfish ndiyabwino kwambiri ndipo imakhala ndi belu. Mtundu wa polyp uyenera kulumikizidwa pansi panyanja mosalekeza ndikuwongolera kumtunda. M'malo mwake, nsomba zam'madzi zimakhala ndi zotsekemera ndipo pakamwa pake pamayang'ana pansi.

Gulu la cnidarians

magulu a cnidarian

Mitundu yambiri yama cnidarians imapanga zigawo zomwe zimapangidwa ndi zamoyo zomwe zimadziwika kuti zooids zomwe zimakhala zodzikongoletsera komanso zofananira ndi zina zonse. Mwa mitundu ikuluikulu yomwe ma cnidarians amagawidwa tili nayo amatha kuberekanso kudzera mwa ma polyps ndi ena kudzera mu jellyfish. Mitundu ina imatha kupita patsogolo kuchokera ku polyp mpaka jellyfish magawo kangapo m'moyo wawo wonse. Ena amangopezeka munthawi ya polyp kapena jellyfish.

Tiyeni tiwone zomwe magulu akuluakulu a cnidarians ali:

Anthozoa

Kalasiyi imaphatikizapo nyama zonse zotchedwa anemones, corals ndi nthenga zam'nyanja. Kalasiyi imangokhala ndi nyama zomwe zili ndi gawo la polyp. Amatha kukhala osungulumwa komanso atsamunda. Tizilombo tating'onoting'ono timatha kuberekanso kapena kugonana ndikupanga tizilombo tina tatsopano. Nyamazi ndizosalala kwathunthu ndipo ziyenera kukhalabe zochenjeza za gawo lapansi. Zoyeserera zomwe zimapezeka munyama izi zimapezeka m'mitundu ingapo ya 6. Mtundu wake wam'mimba umagawika ndi magawo omwe amachokera ku gastrodermis ndi mesoglea. Mesoglea ndi gawo lapakatikati pakati pamaselo awiri omwe amatchedwa ectoderm ndi endoderm.

Kubozoa

Ndi kalasi mwa ma cnidarians omwe amaphatikiza ma jellyfish onse ndi mavu apanyanja. Mitunduyi imangopezeka mgulu la nsomba. Ili ndi mawonekedwe a kiyubiki ndipo ndipamene dzina lake limachokera. Mphepete mwa jellyfish iyi ndi scalloped ndipo m'mphepete mwake mumalowa mkati kuti mupange mawonekedwe ofanana ndi chophimba. Chifukwa chake, Kapangidwe kamene ma cubozoans amadziwika amatchedwa velario. Nyama izi zimadziwika kuti zimaluma kwambiri pano, zitha kupha ngati ziluma anthu.

Hydrozoa

Gulu la nyama silimadziwika pansi pa dzina loti hydromedusae. Mwa mitundu yambiri ya mitunduyi pali kusinthana m'mibadwo pakati pa asexual polyp phase ndi sex jellyfish gawo. Gawo la polyp nthawi zambiri limakhala pa kuchokera kumadera omwe ali ndi ma polymorphic. Izi zikutanthauza kuti ali ndi mawonekedwe osiyanasiyana ndipo amapanga magulu osiyanasiyana.

Odzola m'kalasiyi ali ndi chophimba ngati cham'mbuyomu ndipo alibe ma cnidocyte amtundu wam'mimba. Ma gonads awo ali ndi chiyambi cha ectodermal komanso alibe mawonekedwe am'mimba omwe amagawidwa ndi septa.

Scyphozoa

Gulu ili la nyama Amadziwika chifukwa chokhala ndi gawo la nsomba modabwitsa. Gawo lake la polyp ndilochepa kwambiri. Akafika pagawo la jellyfish, alibe chophimba koma amakhala ndi zovala ndi ma cnidocyte m'mimbamo yam'mimba. Mosiyana ndi gulu la hydrozoa, gulu ili la cnidarians limakhala ndi mawonekedwe am'mimba opangidwa ndi 4 septa. Chifukwa cha kupatukana uku, ili ndi mawonekedwe osiyana omwe amalekanitsa thumba la m'mimba m'matumba anayi am'mimba.

Kudyetsa ndi kuberekanso kwa cnidarians

polyp ndi jellyfish magawo

Chimodzi mwazinthu zazikulu zomwe nyama izi zimakhala nazo ndikuti ambiri mwa iwo ndi nyama zodya nyama. Kuti agwire nyama yawo amagwiritsa ntchito zothandizirazo komanso ma cnidocyte omwe amatulutsa mankhwala oluma ndikupha nyama.

Ponena za kubereka kwake, imatha kuberekanso m'njira zosiyanasiyana. M'magulu ena pamakhala kusinthana pakati pa mitundu ingapo ya kuberekana ndi gawo la jellyfish la kubereka.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitso ichi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za cnidarians ndi magulu akulu ndi mitundu yomwe ilipo.


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