Osmoregulation

Carp wamadzi oyera ndi osmoregulation

Chimodzi mwazinthu zofunikira kwambiri m'zinthu zamoyo ndipo, koposa zonse, kwa iwo omwe amakhala m'malo azachilengedwe zam'madzi ndi kuwonjezeka, yemwenso amadziwika kuti osmotic bwino.

Zosintha zonse zamagetsi zofunika pamoyo zimachitika mumadzimadzi amadzimadzi kapena amadzimadzi. Kuti mugwire bwino ntchito izi, ndikofunikira kuti kuchuluka kwa madzi ndi solutes (mitundu yonse yotsika yama molekyulu omwe amathandizira kukhalabe ndi osmotic bwinooscillate mkati mwazitali zochepa, munthawi yotchedwa kuwonjezeka

Titha kutanthauzira fayilo ya kuwonjezeka monga njira yomwe imasunga homeostasis ya thupi, chomwe sichinthu china koma kuthekera kwa zamoyo zomwe zimapangitsa kuti mkhalidwe wawo wamkati ukhale wolimba kutengera kusintha komwe kumachitika kumayiko ena posinthana kwa zinthu ndi mphamvu chimodzimodzi.

Zonsezi zimadalira kusintha kosungunuka kwama solute m'madzi amkati ndi omwe ali m'chilengedwe. Izi zimatitsogolera pakukhazikitsa kayendedwe ka madzi komwe kumachita gawo lofunikira.

Lamuloli la kayendedwe ka madzi limachitika ndi osmosis, chomwe ndi chodabwitsa chakuthupi kutengera kayendedwe ka madzi osungunulira omwe amadutsa kudzera mu memphane yopumira. Chodabwitsachi chimachitika chifukwa cha kufalikira kosavuta komwe sikutanthauza mphamvu yamagetsi ndipo kumakhala kofunikira pakupanga kwama cell olondola azamoyo.

Mwachidule, komanso mwachidule, the kuwonjezeka amatithandiza kupanga magawo a solutes Zamoyo zamkati zamkati (mwachitsanzo: maselo) ndi chilengedwe chomwe zimawazungulira, zimakonda kudziyendetsa bwino poyenda komanso kuyenda komwe kumadutsa kamphindi kakang'ono kololeza. Zoterezi zimatilola kuwongolera kuthamanga osmotic (kupanikizika komwe kumachitika pofuna kuyimitsa kutuluka kwa zinthu zosungunulira zomwe zimalowa mu membrane).

Kusamalitsa kwa Osmotic munyama

nsomba za m'madzi

M'zinyama zambiri, madzi omwe amapereka maselo amakhala isosmotic poyerekeza ndi madzi omwe amakhala mkati mwa maselo. Izi zikutanthauzanji?, Madzi amkati ndi kunja kwa maselo amakhala ndi kuthamanga osmotic ofanana kwambiri. Izi ndikuti tipewe kuti khungu lizitupa kwambiri, monga momwe zingachitikire mu yankho la hypotonic, kapena khwinya, china chake chomwe chimachitika mu mayankho a hypertonic.

Kuti athe kusunga madziwo isosmotic Kumbali zonse ziwiri za nembanemba ya plasma, zomwe amachita amagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zambiri zomwe amatha kupopera Na + kuchokera mkati mwa khungu kudzera poyenda mwachangu.

Maselo azinyama amawona mu yankho isosmotic sing'anga yoyenera kuti igwire bwino ntchito ndikukula. Komano, muzomera sizikhala choncho. Maselo obzala omwe amapezeka mu yankho isosmotic Amatha kutayika kwambiri, chifukwa ma cell amenewa amatha kukhala ndi solute yomwe amakhala nayo kwambiri.

Kusungunuka kwa nyama zam'madzi

osmotic bwino

Zinyama zam'madzi zatha kusintha malo okhala osiyanasiyana, kuyambira madzi abwino (ndi ochepa kwambiri solutes) kumadzi amchere kwambiri (kuchuluka kwakukulu kwa solutes). Izi zawapangitsa kuti akumane ndi zovuta zowongolera malamulo a osmotic bwino olekanitsidwa kwambiri wina ndi mnzake. Kuphatikiza apo, ndikofunikira kudziwa kuti mtundu uliwonse wa zamoyo kapena zamoyo zimagwira ntchito mosiyanasiyana momwe zimakhalira.

Poterepa, titha kusiyanitsa pakati pa:

  • Zolemba: zamoyo zomwe zimalekerera mchere wochepa ngati momwe zimakhalira kunja, mosasamala kanthu kuti ndi madzi abwino kapena madzi amchere.
  • Euryhalines: zamoyo zomwe zimalekerera mchere wambiri kuposa momwe zimakhalira kunja, mosasamala kanthu kuti ndi madzi abwino kapena madzi amchere.

Makamaka, pali njira ziwiri zofunika kukwaniritsa zomwe mwakhala mukuziyembekezera kwanthawi yayitali kuwonjezeka.

Poyambirira timaperekedwa ndi kutumpha, kutanthauza nyama zomwe zili mu osmotic bwino mosalekeza ndi malo omwe akukhalamo, ndikukhala nyama chodziwika ndi chilengedwe chake. Nthawi zambiri zimakhala zamoyo zomwe zimapezeka m'madzi abwino, ngakhale zina zimapezekanso m'madzi osatetezeka omwe amakhala ndi mchere wambiri.

Ndipo, kachiwiri, tili ndi nyama adachita, yomwe iyenera kuyesa kusunga kusakanikirana kwa osmotic ndi chilengedwe chawo. Izi zikutanthauza mtengo wamagetsi womwe umasiyanasiyana kutengera kufalikira kwa khungu kapena kunja kwa nyama. Tiyeneranso kutchulidwa kuti ngati osmolarity zamadzimadzi amthupi ndi zazikulu kuposa zachilengedwe, tikukumana ndi nyama zosokoneza. Komabe, ngati ndi yaying'ono kwambiri, titha kunena kuti ndi nyama zachinyengo.

Osmoregulation mu nsomba zamadzi

nsomba-yatsopano-madzi-nsomba

Mu nsomba zamadzi oyera, ma ion omwe amapezeka mthupi lawo amapitilira m'madzi. Izi zimayambitsa kufalikira kwamadzi komwe kumalowa kudzera mu epithelium ya ma gill ndi thupi lanu lonse mpaka mkati.

Izi ndizosinthika chifukwa chakuti impso za gulu ili la nsomba zimapanga mkodzo wambiri. Kwa izi ziyenera kuwonjezeredwa kuti pokhala ndi mchere wambiri womwe madzi omwe amakhala, amataya ma elekitirodi, zomwe amayenera kulipirira mwa kuyamwa mchere kudzera m'mitsempha yawo.

Nsomba zopanda mamba
Nkhani yowonjezera:
Nsomba zazikulu kwambiri zamadzi padziko lonse lapansi

Osmoregulation mu nsomba zamchere zamchere

osmoregulation-nsomba-marios

Mukukonzekera kuwonjezeka Mwa nsomba zamchere zamchere, kapena nsomba zam'madzi, zosiyana ndizowona za abale awo amadzi amchere. Poterepa, madzi amakhala akuyenda mkatikati mwa thupi la nsomba kupita panja. Pulogalamu ya ions zomwe zimasungira madzi kulowa mthupi la nyama iyi kudzera m'mitsempha. Izi zitha kubweretsa vuto lalikulu, lomwe silinanso kupatula chiopsezo cha kuchepa kwa madzi m'thupi.

Pofuna kupewa kuchepa kwa madzi m'nyanja, nsomba zam'madzi zimamwa madzi ambiri nthawi zonse, ndipo mchere wambiri womwe umapangidwa amatulutsidwa kunja kudzera njira zitatu: ndowe, mkodzo ndi milomo yomwe.

El osmotic bwino, choyambirira, zitha kuwoneka ngati zovuta komanso zovuta kuzimvetsa. Komabe, ndikofunikira pamoyo, popeza zamoyo zonse zimadalira icho. Ndikofunikanso kuti izidziwike ndi onse omwe amakonda nsomba, chifukwa mwanjira imeneyi amatha kumvetsetsa bwino zamkati mwa nyama zawo. Tikukhulupirira takwanitsa kukuthandizani ndikufotokozerani kukayika kwina pankhani yovutayi.


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