Amphibians

amphibians

Amphibians imhuka dzine vertebrate Ivo vanozivikanwa neganda ravo rakashama, vasina zviyero.

Muchikamu chino isu tichatsanangura zvese zvakavanzika zvemhuka izvi, kutanga ne kubereka kwemaamphibian, mhando dzemamphibian dziripo, mimwe mienzaniso uye zvimwe zvido zvinonyatso kubatsira iwe.

Kuberekwa kwemaamphibian

amphibians

Kuva oviparous, kubereka kwemaamphibian ndezve mazai. Zvipuka zvinokambaira uye zvipfuwo zvinoberekana kubva mukati memukati (mukati memukadzi) apo maamphibians achidzidzira kusangana kwekunze.

La amphibian fertilization inowanikwa mumvura yakachena, nekuti mhando yemvura iyi ndiyo ichave inochengetedza mazai panguva yekukura kwavo uye inobvumira maamphibian kuti asade mbichana, senge amniotic sac kana allantois, nekudaro zvimwe zvehunhu hwakasiyana kubva kune dzimwe nyika dzepasi pemvura.

Fetiraiza kune wekunze ari kutevera hunhu maitiro: murume anobata mukadzi, uyo ari kukandira mazai. Sezvo izvi zvinobuda, murume anoenda kurasira urume hwavo pavari nekuisa fetiraiza. Mazai anoramba ari mumvura achigadzira tambo kana akasungirirwa kune zvinomera zvemumvura. Makonye emvura anobuda maari zvakare.

Kushambira datya

Ose ari ehove nemaamphibian, ayo ekunze manyowa anotungamira, mazai ane butiro rakatetepa, sezvo chirume chinofanira kuyambuka kuitira kuti kusangana kuitike. Nechikonzero ichi, mazai aya anofanirwa kuiswa mumvura akanamatirana, achiumba masumbu ane simba.

Amphibians anozvarwa se gonye remumvura rinofamba nemuswe uye inofema nemumakonzo. Kana irova, rinonzi tadpole, rakura zvakakwana, rinoita chiitiko che zvachose metamorphosis. Kunze kwemarudzi mashoma ematatya emusango anogara achinaya, zvinhu izvi zvinopedzisira zvanyangarika uye zvinotsiviwa nemapapu nemakumbo apo tadpoles anokura.

Iyi kirasi ye vertebrate amphibians yakaumbwa ne matatya, matohwe, salamanders uye caecilians yemumvura. Aya maamphibian anokwanisa kurarama mukati nekubuda mumvura, kunyangwe vachida kugara vachinyorova sezvo iri nzira yavo yekufema.

Amphibian mhuka, ndedzipi?

Muti wedatya

MuchiLatin izwi rekuti amphibian rine zvarinoreva, rinoreva “hupenyu huviri”. Uye ndeyekuti ichi ndicho chinoshamisa chemhuka idzi, dzinokwanisa kugadzirisa uye kuita mabasa avo ehupenyu mu zvisikwa zviviri zvakasiyana: pamusoro penzvimbo uye nzvimbo dzemumvura. Nekudaro, isu tiri kuenda kunzvera zvishoma kune izvo zvinoreva amphibhi.

Amphibian chikamu chemhuri huru iyi yezvinhu zvipenyu zvinoratidzwa se vertebrates (vane mapfupa, ndokuti, marangwanda emukati) anamniotes (Mwana wako mudumbu anokura kuva mahamvuropu mana akasiyana: chorion, the allantois, amnion uye yolk sac, kugadzira mvura ine mvura mukati maanogona kufema nekupa chikafu), tetrapods (vane mitezo mina, ambulensi kana inonyengera) uye ectothermic (Vane tembiricha yemuviri inosiyana).

Vane nguva inonzi shanduko (shanduko iyo dzimwe mhuka dzinoenda panguva yekukura kwehupenyu uye iyo inokanganisa zvese morphology uye mabasa uye mararamiro Pakati pechakakurumbira shanduko dzakasangana ndeye kubva kubva kumagirosi (nyowani) kuenda kumapapu (vakuru).

Mhando dzemamphibian

Newt, imwe yemhando dzakajairika dzemamphibian

Triton

Mukati memhuri iyi hombe inogadzirwa nemaamphibian, tinogona kugadzira diki diki zvichienderana nemirairo mitatu: anurans, caudates o urodeles y apodal o gymnophiona.

ari anurans Idzo ndidzo mhando dzemaamphibian dzakarongedzwa pamwe chete neavo vese maamphibian atinonyanya kuzivikanwa sematatya nematoto. Ive nekuchenjerera, iro datya nechuru hadziyo mamwe marudzi. Ivo vakasunganidzwa pamwechete neyakafanana morphological uye maitiro.

ari urodeles Iwo mamwe marudzi emaamphibian anosiyana nekuve nemuswe murefu uye hunde yakareba. Maziso avo haana kunyanyisa kukura uye akafukidzwa neganda rakanaka. Pano tinowana nyowani, salamanders, mapuroteni uye mermaids.

Chekupedzisira, pane mhando dze apodal amphibians, ayo ari akanyanya kusarudzika pane ese nekuda kwechitarisiko chawo. Dzinonyanya kufanana nehonye kana honye yepasi nekuti haina mitezo uye miviri yavo yakati rebei.

Amphibian hunhu

Bhuru churu

Sezvatakambotaura, maamphibian mhuka dzinomarara, uye vane "ropafadzo" yekuve ivo zvimwe zvekare yekirasi iyi mhuka dzinogara mupasi. Ivo vanonzi vanga varipo kutenderera kwemazana emamirioni mazana matatu emakore, zvisina kana chinhu!

Vane mitezo mina: maviri kumberi uye maviri kumashure. Iyi mitezo inozivikanwa nezita rinoshamisa re mudiwa. Iyo quiridus inozivikanwa nekuve ne morphology yakafanana neruoko rwemunhu, nezvigunwe zvina kumakumbo epamberi uye zvishanu kumashure. Mamwe akawanda maamphibian ane zvakare yechishanu muswe-senge nhengo.

Kuva zvipenyu zve ropa rakadziya, tembiricha yavo yemuviri inoenderana, uye yakawanda, pane nharaunda yavari, sezvo vasingakwanise kudzora kupisa kwavo kwemukati. Ichi ndicho chimwe chezvikonzero zvekumanikidza kwemasimba izvo zvakavatungamira kujairana nehupenyu mumvura uye nepanyika. Aya masisitimu maviri anobatsira iwe kudzivirira kupisa kana kutonhora muviri wako.

Mwanakomana oviparoussezvavanochochonya pamazai. Iye ndiye mukadzi anotarisira kuisa mazai aya uye anogara achidaro munzvimbo yemumvura, nekudaro iwo madiki maenzanisi ane yekufema system ine zviyero.

Ganda rezvinhu izvi ndizvo inowanikwa, kuve nekukwanisa kuyambuka nemamorekuru akasiyana, magasi uye zvimwe zvikamu. Mimwe mhando inokwanisa kuvanza zvinhu zvine chepfu kuburikidza neganda ravo senzira yekuzvidzivirira panjodzi dzekunze.

Kunyangwe kutarisa paganda rako, zvinofanirwa kucherechedzwa kuti izvi ndizvo nyorova uye kugarwa nevanhu nezviyero, kusiyana nemamwe marudzi emhuka dzinoatakura. Aya mamiriro anovabvumidza kuti vanwe zvakanaka mvura uye, nekudaro, oxygen. Pane zvinopesana, zvinovaita kuti vave panjodzi huru kune zvinoitika zve dehydration. Kana amphibian iri munzvimbo ine hunyoro hwakadzika, ganda rayo rinomira nekukurumidza, izvo zvinogona kukonzeresa kumatambudziko akakomba uye kunyangwe rufu.

Idzi mhuka dzine kutenderera kweropa dzine chikamu chikuru chiri a tricameral moyo inoumbwa maviri atria uye imwe ventricle. Kutenderera kwaro kwakavharwa, kwakapetwa uye hakuna kukwana.

Meso anowanzo kuve makuru uye, pane kudaro, kubhururuka, ayo anofambisa a munda mukuru wekuona zvakakodzera chaizvo pakuvhima zvinogona kubatwa. Iko kune kusarudzika senge nyowani.

Kunyangwe zvingave zvisingaite senge, amphibians vane meno, kunyangwe izvi zvisingawanzoitika. Basa rayo nderekubatsira kubata chikafu. Rurimi runove zvakare mudziyo wakakwana wekutora dzimwe mhuka diki. Ivo vanopa dumbu rakaumbwa mudumbu, ane ura hupfupi hukuru, itsvo mbiri, uye dundira.

Mienzaniso yemamphibians

Salamander

Salamander

Parizvino, pane akanyorwa pane mamwe Mazana matatu nemazana mashanu emarudzi emaamphibian. Zvisinei, masayendisiti, mukufungidzira kwavo, vanofungidzira kuti huwandu hwacho hungangove hwakatenderedza 6.400.

Kana tichifunga nezvemaamphibian, mufananidzo wedatya kana chigunwe unogara uchiuya mupfungwa, asi isu zvakare tine dzimwe mhuka senge nyowani uye salamanders.

Iyi ingori mienzaniso mishoma yemamphibian, kunyange hazvo paine zvimwe zvakawanda.

Anderson salamander (Ambystoma andersoni)

Mhando iyi yesaramende inozivikanwa zvakare seaxolotl kana purepecha achoque. Iyo ndeye endemic marudzi, ndiko kuti, inongori mune imwe nzvimbo. Mune ino kesi, inongogara muZacapu Lagoon, iri mudunhu reMichoacán (Mexico).

Inonyanya kuzivikanwa nekuve nemuviri wakakora, mupfupi muswe uye magedhi. Yayo orenji kana ruvara rutsvuku, rwakawedzerwa kune ayo matema matema ayo anowedzera mukati maro wese muviri pamusoro, anoita kuti irege kuenda isingazivikanwe.

Marbled Newt (Triturus marmoratus)

Mhuka iyi inowanikwa kunyanya munharaunda yeEurope, kunyanya kuchamhembe kweSpain uye kumabvazuva kweFrance. Iyo ine greenish coloration inofambidzana neayo anokatyamadza matema greenish. Uye zvakare, musana waro unoyambuka netambo yakasarudzika yered pigment.

Zvakajairika chura (Bufo bufo)

Zvakajairika kuhuwana mune rese kondinendi yeEurope uye chikamu cheAsia. Inofarira nzvimbo dzinogadzirwa nemvura dzakamira, nzvimbo dzakadiridzwa, nezvimwe. Zvichida, kusagadzikana zvakadaro nehupenyu hwekugara mumvura isina hutsanana kwakaita kuti ive imwe yemaphibhi akapararira uye anozivikanwa. Iyo haina mavara akajeka, asi panzvimbo pezvo ganda rayo ndere "brownish" toni, yakafukidzwa nemapundu akati wandei muchimiro chema warts.

Vermilion datya (Rana temporaria)

Kufanana nehama dzayo dzataurwa pamusoro apa, iyi amphibian yaitawo Europe neAsia musha wayo. Kunyangwe ichida nzvimbo dzine hunyoro, iro datya rinoshandisa yakawanda yenguva raro kubuda mumvura. Iyo haisi yeiyo yakasarudzika paturu pateni, asi yega yega munhu anogona kupa akasiyana mavara. Kunyangwe izvi, ganda rakasviba rine madiki madiki rinowanzo kuwanda. Iyo yakanongedzwa snout ndiyo imwe yemaraki ayo.

chepfu mumamphibhiya
Nyaya inoenderana:
Zvinotyisa amphibians

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako