Pelagic uye benthic zvipenyu zvegungwa

Marine

Ose maviri makungwa nemakungwa ari, pasina mubvunzo, ndeimwe yemanyuko vakapfuma, maererano nehupenyu hwenyika, papasi Pasi. Mukati maro mune dzimba dzavasingaverengeki vanovaita nzvimbo dzinonakidza. Mauto anosiyana, kunyanya, muchimiro chavo, saizi, ruvara, maitiro, mafomati ekudyisa, nezvimwe.

Zviripachena, zvisikwa zvemumvura zvakasarudzika kubva kune mumwe nemumwe. Hunhu hwavo hunogona kuve hwakasiyana kwazvo, hunokanganisa, nenzira chaiyo, yavo kugona kugarwa kana kwete.

Zvine musoro, mamiriro ekugara mumvura isina kudzika kana padyo nemahombekombe haana kufanana. Ikoko, mwenje wakawanda, tembiricha inoenda mukusiyana kwakawanda, uye kuyerera uye kufamba kwemvura kunowanzoitika uye kune njodzi. Zvisinei, sezvatinodzika munzvimbo dzakadzika, tinowana mufananidzo wakasiyana zvachose. Nechikonzero ichi, zvipenyu zvakapatsanuka zvakanyanya zvichienderana nenzvimbo yegungwa kana yegungwa mavanosimudzira hupenyu hwavo.

Pano ndipo panowanikwa mazwi maviri angave asingazivikanwe kwatiri anoita kuti aoneke: pelagic y benthic.

Pelagic uye benthic

Koi hove

Pelagic inoreva chikamu chegungwa chiri pamusoro pe pelagic zone. Ndokunge, kune ikholamu yemvura iyo isingawanikwi pasherefu pasherefu kana kutenderera, asi iri padyo nayo. Ndiyo kutambanudza kwemvura isina kudzika kwakadzika. Kune chikamu chayo, benthic inopesana. Inoenderana nezvese zvinhu yakabatana negungwa uye pasi pegungwa.

Zvichida, zvipenyu zvemumvura, pakati pazvo zviri hove, zvinosiyaniswa mumhuri mbiri hombe: pelagic zvisikwa y benthic zvipenyu.

Tevere, isu tinoenderera mberi nekutsanangura imwe neimwe yadzo:

Tsanangudzo yezvipembenene

Kana tichitaura nezve pelagic zvisikwa, tiri kureva kune ese marudzi ayo anogara mvura yepakati pemakungwa nemakungwa, kana padyo nepadenga. Naizvozvo, zviri pachena kuti mhando iyi yezvipenyu zvemumvura zvinodzora kusangana nenzvimbo dzakadzika kwazvo.

Dzinogoverwa munzvimbo dzakapenya zvakanaka, kubvira pamusoro penzvimbo kusvika kumamita mazana maviri pakadzika. Rukoko urwu rwunozivikanwa se phiotic zone.

Izvo zvinofanirwa kucherechedzwa kuti muvengi mukuru weizvi zvese zvisikwa ndeyekusarura hove.

Kune maviri akakosha marudzi epelagic zvipenyu: nekton, plakton uye neuston.

nekton

Mariri mune hove, hamba, cetaceans, cephalopods, nezvimwe. Mitezo iyo, nekuda kwekufamba kwavo, iri inokwanisa kumisikidza mafungu egungwa akasimba.

Plakton

Ivo vanozivikanwa, zvakanyanya, nekuve zvidiki zvidiki, dzimwe nguva zvidiki. Dzinogona kuve dzemhando yemiriwo (phytoplankton) kana yemhando yemhuka (zooplankton). Nehurombo, izvi zvisikwa, nekuda kwemaitiro avo, havakwanise kurova mafungu egungwa, saka vanoswededzwa navo.

Neuston

Ivo ndevaya vapenyu vakagadzira iyo yepamusoro firimu yemvura imba yavo.

Pelagic hove

Pelagic hove

Kana isu tikatarisa kuboka rinoumba pelagic hove zvakadaro, tinogona kugadzira imwe diki, iyo iri, nenzira imwecheteyo, zvichienderana nenzvimbo dzemumvura dzavanogara.

Coastal pelagics

Mahombekombe egungwa epelagic anowanzo kuve hove diki dzinogara muzvikoro zvikuru zvinotenderera pasherefu pasherese uye padyo nepadenga. Muenzaniso weizvi mhuka dzakadai seanchovies kana sardines.

Oceanic pelagics                          

Mukati meiri boka mune zvipuka zviri zvepakati nepakati zvinowanzo famba. Ivo vese vane hunhu, zvese zveatomical uye zvemuviri, zvakafanana chaizvo neyavo emahombekombe hama, nepo mafambiro avo ekudyisa akasiyana.

Kunyangwe iine kukura nekukurumidza uye kubereka kwakanyanya, huwandu hwevanhu vavo hwakadzikira zvakanyanya, zvichiita kuti kukura kwavo kunonoke. Izvi zvinonyanya kukonzerwa nekuti ivo vari pasi pekuredza kukuru.

Hove dzakadai sa tuna uye bonito ndizvo zvinowanzo fanika zvisikwa zvepanyanza.

Izwi rakafanana kune zvipenyu zvepelagic

Sezvo izwi rokuti pelagic richinongedzera kune imwe nzvimbo yegungwa negungwa, izwi rinomukawo iro rinoshandiswa kutaura nezvaro munzvimbo yaro sezvariri "abyssal". Uye nekudaro, nenzira imwecheteyo yatinoita mareferenzi kune zvisikwa zvepelagic nehove, tinogona kuzvidanawo seizvi hove kana zvipuka zvegomba rakadzikadzika.

Tsanangudzo yezvisikwa zvebenthic

Carp, hove yepelagic

Benthic zvipenyu ndeavo vanogara pamwe chete mu mvura icosystems kumashure, kusiyana nezvipenyu zvepelagic.

Munzvimbo idzi dzegungwa apo chiedza uye kujekesa zvinoita kuti zvioneke, padiki padiki, hongu, tinowana varimi vekutanga benthic photosynthesizers (vanokwanisa kuburitsa chikafu chavo).

Ndatonyudzwa mu aphotic kumashure, isina chiedza uye iri pakadzika zvakanyanya, pane zvipenyu zvinodya, zvinoenderana neyakagadzika zvisikwa uye tusingaoneki iyo giravhiti inodhonza kubva pamatanho emvura epamusoro kuti vazvidye.

Nyaya yakasarudzika ibhakitiriya, kune rumwe rutivi chemosynthesizers uye pane rimwe racho symbiotic (Ivo vanovimba nezvimwe zvipenyu), ayo ari munzvimbo dzinotyisa semamwe mapoinzi epakati pemakungwa ari.

Pakutanga kuona, hazvishamise kuti, mushure mekuverenga zvataurwa pamusoro apa, isu hatina kujairana nezvinhu zve benthic. Hapana chingave chinopfuura icho kubva pachokwadi. Kune mhando yakabatana navo inozivikanwa kwazvo uye inozivikanwa kune vese: nekorari.

Pasina kupokana, matombo emakorari ndeimwe yeakakosha matombo eamai pasi. Nekudaro, uye zvinosuruvarisa, ivowo ndivo vanotyisidzirwa zvakanyanya. Dzimwe nzira dzekuredza, dzimwe nguva dzisiri dzechokwadi, dziri kudziuraya. Isu tinotaura, semuenzaniso, nezve trawl mambure, zvinova zviri kukonzera matambudziko akakomba ezvakatipoteredza.

Zvimwe zvakawanda zvipenyu chikamu chemhuri huru yechi benthic. Isu tinotaura nezve iyo echinoderms (nyeredzi uye urchin yegungwa), iyo pleuronectiform (soles nezvimwe zvakadaro), iyo cephalopods (octopus uye cuttlefish), iyo bivalve y mollusks uye mamwe marudzi e algae.

Benthic hove

Benthic hove

Sezvambotaurwa pamusoro apa, mukati mehutachiona hwechigumi tinowana mhando dzehove dzinozivikanwa se "peluronectiform", iri yehurongwa hwehove flounder, machongwe uye oga.

Nyaya inoenderana:
Roosterfish

Ihove idzi dzinozivikanwa nekuve neakasarudzika morphology. Muviri wake, wakamanikidzwa zvakanyanya gare gare, uchikwevera a chimiro chakatsetseka, hapana anosiya asina hanya. Yefry, ivo vane lateral symmetry, iine ziso kudivi rega. Iyo lateral symmetry iyo inonyangarika sezvavanokura. Vakuru, vanozorora kune rimwe remativi avo, vane muviri wakatsetseka uye mamwe akarongedzwa kumusoro kwekumusoro.

Semutemo, ivo vari hove dzinodya nyama uye dzinodya dzimwe mhuka, vane zvidhori zvinoitwa nenzira yekunyepedzera.

Mhando dzakajairika, sezvo dziri dzinonyanya kushandiswa mumunda wezvekubika nekubata hove, ndiwo chete and the turbot.

Anoreva zvakafanana nezve benthic zvipenyu

Kana isu tikadzokorora akasiyana sainzi mabhuku akatsaurwa kune iyo taxonomy uye kupatsanurwa kwehumambo humhuka, isu tinogona kuwana zvipenyu uye benthic zviri nyore ne "Bentos" o "Benthic".

Zvisikwa inyika inonakidza, uye zvipenyu zvemumvura zvinokodzera chitsauko chakaparadzana. Kutaura nezve pelagic uye benthic zvisikwa chinhu chakanyanya kuomarara uye zvakanyanya kuomarara. Ichi chidiki chekuongorora chinoratidzira, mune yakafara kurova, iwo maratidziro anosiyanisa imwe kubva kune imwe.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Makomendi gumi, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Jose Fernando Obama akadaro

    muenzaniso wakanaka uye pfupiso yakanaka
    hapana chimwe kunze kwekuramba wakadai uye ndinokutenda zvakanyanya necalos, yatove k, yanga ichabatsira kwazvo

  2.   Javier Chavez akadaro

    chokwadi chakaratidzika kunge chinonakidza kwandiri, zvaibatsira kwazvo kudzoka kumusoro uyu, kwaziso.