Osmoregulation

Ikhaphethi yamanzi amatsha kunye ne-osmoregulation

Enye yeenkqubo zebhayoloji ezisisiseko kwizinto eziphilayo kwaye, ngaphezulu kwako konke, kwabo bahlala kumanzi endalo yindalo ukungenisa, kwaziwa njenge ibhalansi ye-osmotic.

Zonke iimpendulo zemetabolism eziyimfuneko ebomini zenzeka kwindawo enamanzi okanye engamanzi. Ukusebenza ngokuchanekileyo kwezi mpendulo, kuyimfuneko ukuba ukuxinwa kwamanzi kunye solutes (Zonke ezo zinto ziphantsi zeemolekyuli ezinobunzima bokugcina ibhalansi ye-osmoticoscillate ngaphakathi kweemida ezincinci, kwinkqubo ebizwa ukungenisa

Singazichaza ukungenisa Njengendlela egcina i-homeostasis yomzimba, ayikho enye into ngaphandle kokubanakho kwezinto eziphilayo ukugcina imeko yangaphakathi izinzile kuxhomekeke kutshintsho olunokwenzeka phesheya ngokutshintshiselana ngento kunye namandla ngokufanayo.

Konke oku kuxhomekeke ekubuseni okulawulwayo kokunyibilikiswa kulwelo lwangaphakathi kunye nokusingqongileyo. Oku kusikhokelela kulawulo lokuhamba kwamanzi kudlala indima ebalulekileyo.

Lo mmiselo wokuhamba kwamanzi uyenziwa osmosis, esi sisenzeko somzimba esisekwe kukuhamba kolwelo olusinyibilikisayo olugqitha kwimbrane engenakuguqulwa. Le nto ivela ngenxa yentsingiselo elula engafuneki kwinkcitho yamandla kwaye eya kuba ibalulekile kulungiso oluchanekileyo lweselfowuni yezinto eziphilayo.

Ngamafutshane, kwaye njengesishwankathelo ngokubanzi, i ukungenisa isinceda ukwenza ugxininiso lwe solutes Izinto ezikhoyo zangaphakathi (umzekelo: iiseli) kunye nokusingqongileyo okubangqongileyo, zihlala zilinganisa ngokuhamba kunye nokuhamba okuwela i-membrane engenayo. Imeko enjalo iyasivumela ukuba silawule uxinzelelo lwe-osmotic (Uxinzelelo olwenziweyo ukuze kumiswe ukuhamba okuthile kwesinyibilikisi esingena kwi-membrane).

Ibhalansi ye-Osmotic kwizilwanyana

iintlanzi zolwandle

Kwizilwanyana ezininzi, ulwelo olunikezela iiseli isosmotic ngokuthelekiswa nolwelo oluhlala ngaphakathi kwiiseli. Ithetha ukuthini le nto? Ewe, ulwelo ngaphakathi nangaphandle lweeseli lune uxinzelelo lwe-osmotic ifana kakhulu. Oku kukuthintela iseli ukuba ingadumba kakhulu, njengoko bekunokwenzeka kwifayile ye- Isisombululo se-hypotonic, okanye imibimbi, yinto eyenzekayo kwifayile ye- Izisombululo zehypertonic.

Ukuze ukwazi ukugcina loo manzi isosmotic Kuwo omabini amacala e-plasma membrane, into abayenzayo kukusebenzisa isixa esikhulu samandla abakwaziyo ukumpompa uNa + ngaphakathi kwiseli ngaphandle ngokuhamba ngokusebenzayo.

Iiseli zezilwanyana zibona kwifayile ye- isisombululo isosmotic isixhobo esifanelekileyo sokusebenza kunye nophuhliso olufanelekileyo. Kwelinye icala, kwizityalo akunjalo. Iiseli zezityalo ezifumaneka kwi isisombululo isosmotic Banokufumana ilahleko eyomeleleyo yeturgor, kuba ezi seli ziyakwazi ukugcina kudonga lwazo lweeseli izixa eziphezulu zesolute ezifikelela kuzo umthamo omkhulu kunye nokomelela.

Ummiselo kwizilwanyana zasemanzini

ibhalansi ye-osmotic

Izilwanyana zasemanzini ziye zakwazi ukuziqhelanisa nokudityaniswa okubanzi kweendawo zokuhlala, ukusukela kumanzi acocekileyo (kunye nembalwa solutes) emanzini anetyuwa eninzi (izixa ezikhulu ze solutes). Oku kubangele ukuba bajongane neengxaki zolawulo lwe- ibhalansi ye-osmotic Zahluke kakhulu komnye nomnye. Ukongeza, kufanelekile ukuba sikhankanye ukuba uhlobo ngalunye lomsebenzi okanye into ephilayo isebenza kuluhlu lwe-osmotic yoxinzelelo lwendawo enikiweyo.

Kule meko, sinako ukwahlula phakathi:

  • Iiphonkco: Izinto eziphila ngokunyinyitheka kwetyuwa efana nobume bendalo engaphandle, nokuba kungamanzi amatsha okanye ngamanzi anetyuwa.
  • Euryhalines: Izinto eziphila ngokunyibilikayo kuluhlu oluninzi lwetyuwa oluqhelekileyo kwimeko-bume engaphandle, nokuba ingaba ngamanzi amnandi okanye ngamanzi anetyuwa.

Ngokuyintloko, zimbini iindlela eziphambili zokufezekisa ekudala ulindelwe ukungenisa.

Kuqala siboniswa nge iqulatho, Ebhekisa kwizilwanyana ezikwi ibhalansi ye-osmotic rhoqo kunye nendawo abahlala kuyo, baba zizilwanyana isosmitic kunye nendalo esingqongileyo. Zihlala ziphilayo ezifumaneka ikakhulu kumanzi acocekileyo, nangona ezinye zikwenza oko kumanzi angakhuselekanga aqukethe ityuwa.

Kwaye, kwimeko yesibini, sinezilwanyana osoguliso, ekufuneka izame ukugcina ulungelelwaniso lwe-osmotic kunye nokusingqongileyo. Oku kuthetha ukuba iindleko zamandla ziyahluka ngokuxhomekeka kubukho besikhumba okanye umphezulu wangaphandle kwesilwanyana. Kuya kukhankanywa ukuba if osmolarity ulwelo lomzimba lukhulu kunolo lwendalo, sijamelene nesilwanyana hyperosmotic. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba incinci kakhulu, siya kuthi sisilwanyana hypoosmotic.

I-Osmoregulation kwintlanzi yasemanzini

I-osmoregulation-entsha-intlanzi-yentlanzi

Kwintlanzi yamanzi amatsha, uxinzelelo lwe-ion emzimbeni wabo ngokuqinisekileyo luphezulu kunasemanzini. Oku kubangela ukusasazeka okungagungqiyo kwamanzi angena kwi-epithelium yegill kunye nawo wonke umzimba wakho uye ngaphakathi.

Oku kuyabuyiselwa ngenxa yokuba izintso zeli qela leentlanzi zivelisa umchamo omkhulu. Kule nto kufuneka yongezwe ngokuba nokuxinana kweetyiwa amanzi ahlala kuwo, aphulukana nawo ii-electrolyte, ekufuneka babuyele kuzo ngokufunxa ityuwa ngeegill zabo.

Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Eyona ntlanzi inkulu engenamanzi ehlabathini

I-Osmoregulation kwintlanzi yetyuwa

osmoregulation-intlanzi-marios

Kwinkqubo ye ukungenisa Kwiintlanzi zamanzi anetyuwa, okanye iintlanzi zaselwandle, okwahlukileyo kuyinyani kwezihlobo zamanzi amnandi. Kule meko, amanzi ahamba rhoqo ngaphakathi komzimba wentlanzi esiya ngaphandle. Inkqubo ye- ion egcina amanzi angene emzimbeni walesi silwanyana ngemithambo. Oku kunokukhokelela kwingxaki enkulu, engekho enye ngaphandle komngcipheko wokuphelelwa ngamanzi emzimbeni.

Ukuthintela ukuphelelwa ngamanzi emzimbeni, iintlanzi zolwandle zihlala zisebenzisa amanzi amaninzi, kwaye iityuwa ezigqithileyo eziveliswayo zikhutshelwa ngaphandle ngeendlela ezintathu: ilindle, umchamo kunye nemiphunga ngokwazo.

El ibhalansi ye-osmotic, kuqala, kunokubonakala ngathi yinto enzima kakhulu kwaye inzima ukuyiqonda. Nangona kunjalo, ibalulekile ebomini, kuba zonke izinto eziphilayo zixhomekeke kuwo. Kukwabalulekile ukuba yaziwe ngabo bonke abo bathanda iintlanzi, kuba ngale ndlela banokuqonda ngcono indlela yokuziphatha kwangaphakathi kwemfuyo yabo. Siyathemba ukuba sikwazi ukukunceda nokucacisa amathandabuzo athile malunga nesi sihloko sidinayo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

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