Iziponji zolwandle

Iziponji zolwandle

Namhlanje siza kunika ingxelo ngolunye uhlobo kwintlanzi esiyiqhelileyo. Ayisiyo ntlanzi esiza kujongana nayo, kodwa Iziponji zolwandle. Sisilwanyana esingenamqolo esise-poriferous. Bahlala bodwa kwindawo ezinamanzi kwaye ababonisi naluphi na uhlobo lokuhamba. Njengoko igama layo libonisa, ayikho enye into ngaphandle kwesiponji, kodwa iyaphila. Kuphakathi kwezona zilwanyana zilula kwikhonkco lokuzivelela kwezinto, kuba azinazo izicwili ezizizo.

Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi zonke iinkalo zesiponji zolwandle? Ukuba uqhubeka ufunda, uza kubona ukuba zifuna ukwazi kangakanani ezi zilwanyana 🙂

Iimpawu eziphambili

Iindidi zeziponji zolwandle

Njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, isiponji zolwandle zizilwanyana ezilula kakhulu. Ezi zizilwanyana musa ukubonisa naluphi na ulingano macala. Imizimba yabo ayinabume buqinisekileyo, nangona ezinye iintlobo zibonisa ulingano macala. Olona phawu lubalulekileyo kwaye lolunye olunika igama kwi-poriferous edge kukuba imizimba yenziwe ngothotho lwee-pores kunye namajelo adlula kuwo amanzi kwaye, ngale ndlela, bafumana ukutya kunye neoksijini.

Kuba abanazo izicwili ezizodwa, iziponji zolwandle zinenani elikhulu leeseli ezipheleleyo. Ezi seli zinakho ukuba naluphi na uhlobo lweseli olufunwa sisilwanyana nangaliphi na ixesha. Obu buchule benza ukuba ezi zilwanyana zibhetyebhetye xa zijamelene neemeko ezahlukeneyo. Banamandla amakhulu okuhlaziya nkqu nakwezo zihlandlo xa uhlangabezana nelahleko enkulu kubunzima bomzimba.

Nangona imilo phakathi kweziponji zeentlobo ezahlukeneyo inokuhluka kakhulu, zonke zinesakhiwo esifanayo. Zonke zinomngxunya omkhulu kwindawo ephezulu yomzimba wazo owaziwa ngokuba yi-osculum. Kungenxa yalo mngxuma apho amanzi ajikeleza ngaphakathi kwiziponji aphuma khona. Iindonga zomzimba wakho zizele ziipore zobukhulu obahlukeneyo. Kungenxa yezi pores apho amanzi angena khona kunye nohluzo lwenzeka.

Uhlobo lweseli eyahlukileyo kwiziponji zaselwandle zii-choanocytes. Le seli ikhethekileyo ekuhluzeni. Ukucoca yinkqubo apho isiponji sifumana ukutya. Iiseli zine-flagellum kunye ne-microvilli ezininzi ezirhangqileyo kwaye zezona zibangela imisinga yamanzi amancinci apho amanzi angena khona kwisiponji.

Uluhlu kunye nendawo yokuhlala

Iimpawu zesiponji zolwandle

Ngaphandle kwento yokuba iziponji zolwandle zizilwanyana ezingenamqolo, ziyakwazi ukuziqhelanisa neemeko ezahlukeneyo. Ngokujamelana neemeko ezichasene nezilwanyana ezingenakho ukubetha okanye ukusinda, umenza abe ulixhoba lokwenyani. Bayakwazi ukunyamezela ukungcoliseka kwamanzi ziihydrocarbon kakuhle, isinyithi okanye ezinye izinto eziyingozi.

Bambalwa abaxhaphazi bendalo ngenxa yesikhumba samathambo kunye nobutyhefu obuphezulu. Oku kuthetha ukuba isiponji saselwandle sifumaneka phantse kuzo zonke iilwandlekazi nakwiilwandle zehlabathi. Ezona ndawo zidumileyo zenani elikhulu leziponji ezibanjwe kwinkulungwane yama-XNUMX kusenokwenzeka ukuba yiMpuma yeMeditera, iGulf of Mexico, iCaribbean, kunye nolwandle olujikeleze iJapan.

Ngokwendawo yokuhlala, sisilwanyana esingenamqolo esisisilwanyana. Oku kuthetha ukuba zihlala zihlala zilungiswe elwandle kwaye azihambi kuwo. Bayakwazi ukuhlala kwiindawo ezinzulu kakhulu, nangona zinokufumaneka kwiindawo ezingaphezulu. Uninzi lwazo lukhetha imeko apho ukukhanya kwelanga kungenamandla kakhulu.

Ukondla iziponji zolwandle

Ulwalamano oludibeneyo lweziponji zolwandle

Ukutya okuphambili kwezi zilwanyana ngamasuntswana amancinci kakhulu afumaneka elwandle kwaye ayakwazi ukucoca pores zawo. Nangona kunjalo, Zingatya iplankton kunye neebacteria ezincinci. Ezinye iziponji ziyakwazi ukumilisela isifo ngeentsholongwane okanye ezinye izinto ezineseli enye. Olu lwalamano lubabonelela ngezibonelelo ezinjengokufikelela kwizinto eziphilayo.

Kukho ezinye izilwanyana eziselwandle apho unokuba nobudlelwane phakathi kwazo. Olu hlobo lobudlelwane luthetha ukuba omabini amaqela aphumelele ngesibonelelo esinye nesinye. Obu budlelwane benziwa zezinye izilwanyana ezingenamqolo okanye iintlanzi ezisebenzisa iziponji zolwandle njengendawo yokuzimela kwezinye izilwanyana ezinkulu. Ezinye izilwanyana ezingenamqolo zinokungena kuzo kwaye zibancede bajikeleze ngelixa bezifihla. Lo ngumzekelo ocacileyo wobudlelwane.

Ukuveliswa kwakhona

Ukuzaliswa kwakhona kweziponji zolwandle

Ukuba zizinto ezingenanto ngaphandle kokuhamba kwaye ngaphandle kokulinganisa, zizala njani? Emva koko Banokuvelisa kwakhona ngokwesondo nangokwesondo. Okokuqala kukubulela kwiiseli ezipheleleyo esizibonayo ngaphambili. Zibangela ukuba ziguqulwe zibe ziiseli ezifanelekileyo ukuzala kwakhona. Ezi ntlobo zimbini ziqhelekileyo zokuveliswa kwakhona kwe-asexual zikhula. Ezinye iintlobo zamanzi acocekileyo zinokukwenza oku ngokulinganisa.

Ngenxa yokuba iiponji azinamalungu akhethekileyo kuwo nawuphi na umsebenzi, akwanamalungu esini. Oku kunokuba yingxaki xa kufikwa kumdlalo wokudlala. Nangona kunjalo, uninzi lwabantu ngabantu ziihermaphrodites. Badinga ukuchumisa ukuze bavelise ngokufanelekileyo. Zombini isidoda kunye namaqanda ziphuma kwii-choanocytes. Ezi zigxothelwa ngaphandle kwaye kulapho umanyano phakathi kweeseli ezimbini lwenzeka khona. Ke ngoko, sithetha ngochumiso lwangaphandle.

Uphuhliso lwesiponji alungqalanga. Emva kokuphuhla kwabo, badlula kumanqanaba emibungu ngaphambi kokuba bakhule babe ngumntu omdala. Iindidi ezine ezahlukileyo zemibungu ziyaziwa eziya kuxhomekeka kwindidi.

Umnqweno wesiponji zolwandle

Nangona zingathathelwa ngqalelo, iziponji zolwandle zenza ezinye izinto eziyityhefu okanye ezibulala iintsholongwane ukuze zingagcini iintshaba zazo. Uninzi lwezi zinto lusetyenziswa kwishishini lokuxuba amayeza kunye neepropathi abanazo ngokuchasene nezifo eziqhelekileyo kuluntu lwethu ziyasetyenziswa.

Kuyaziwa kwakhona ukuba babe nobudlelwane nabantu ngenxa yokusebenziseka kwabo njenge isixhobo sokucoceka. Okwangoku, ukuthengwa kunye nokuthengiswa kweziponji zokuzisebenzisa kulawulwa kakhulu ngenxa yomonakalo owenzeka kubemi babo.

Ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi ngezi zilwanyana zakudala.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

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