Amphibians

izilwanyana zasemanzini

Amphibians Zizilwanyana ezinomqolo Babonakala ngolusu lwabo olungenanto, ngaphandle kwezikali.

Kweli nqaku siza kuchaza zonke iimfihlelo zezi zilwanyana, ukuqala nge ukuzala kwakhona emanzini, iintlobo ze-amphibians ezikhoyo, eminye imizekelo kunye nezinye izinto eziqinisekileyo zokuba luncedo kuwe.

Ukuzaliswa kwakhona kwezinto eziphila emanzini nasemanzini

izilwanyana zasemanzini

Ukuba yi-oviparous, ukuzala kwakhona emanzini yeyamaqanda. Izirhubuluzi kunye nezilwanyana ezanyisayo zivelisa isichumiso sangaphakathi (ngaphakathi kwabasetyhini) ngelixa ama-amphibians esenza ukuchumisa kwangaphandle.

La ukuchumisa emanzini kwenzeka emanzini amatsha, kuba olu hlobo lwamanzi luya kuba lelona lukhusela amaqanda ngexesha lokukhula kwawo kwaye luvumela ama-amphibians ukuba angafuni izihlomelo ze-embryonic, ezinje nge-amniotic sac okanye i-allantois, yiyo loo nto ezinye zeempawu ezahlukileyo kwezinye izilwanyana eziphila emhlabeni.

Ukuchumisa umntu wangaphandle kulandela inkqubo yempawu: eyindoda ibambe ibhinqa, elizalela amaqanda. Njengoko ezi ziphuma, indoda iyahamba ukuchitha amadlozi abo kubo kunye nokuchumisa kwabo. Amaqanda ahlala emanzini enza iintambo okanye ancanyathiselwe kuhlaza lwasemanzini. Imibungu yasemanzini ivela kubo kwakhona.

Ukuqubha isele

Zombini kwiintlanzi kunye nasemanzini, apho ukuchumisa kwangaphandle kulawula, amaqanda aneqweqwe elibhityileyo, kuba isidoda kufuneka siwele kuwo ukuze kwenzeke ukuchumisa. Ngesi sizathu, la maqanda kufuneka abekwe emanzini ancanyathiselwe omnye komnye, enze izihloko ezikhulu.

Ama-Amphibians azalwa njengo Umbungu wamanzi ohamba nomsila kwaye uphefumla ngegill. Xa umbungu, obizwa ngokuba yintlama, ukhule ngokwaneleyo, uyaqhubeka kwinkqubo Inguqu epheleleyo. Ngaphandle kweentlobo ezimbalwa zamasele amahlathi emvula, ezi mpawu ziya kuthi ekugqibeleni zinyamalale kwaye ziyakutshintshwa yimiphunga kunye nemilenze njengoko oonozala bekhula.

Olu didi lwee-amphibians ezinomqolo lwenziwe amasele, iinzipho, iisalamanders kunye neececilia zasemanzini. Ezi zilwanyana zasemanzini zinako ukuhlala ngaphakathi nangaphandle kwamanzi, nangona zifuna ukuhlala zimanzi njengoko yindlela yazo yokuphefumla.

Izilwanyana ze-Amphibian, ziyintoni?

Isele lomthi

NgesiLatin igama elithi amphibian linentsingiselo ekhethekileyo, lithetha "ubomi obubini". Kwaye oku kukwahluka okukhethekileyo kwezi zilwanyana, ezinako ukutshintsha kunye nokwenza imisebenzi yazo yebhayoloji izinto ezimbini eziphilayo: umhlaba kunye nemimandla yasemanzini. Nangona kunjalo, siza kuphonononga ngakumbi intsingiselo yasemanzini.

Ii-Amphibians ziyinxalenye yosapho olukhulu lwezinto eziphilayo ezihlelwa njenge amathambo omqolo (banamathambo, oko kukuthi, amathambo angaphakathi) imbali (Umbungu wakho ukhula ube ziimvulophu ezine ezahlukeneyo: i-chorion, i-allantois, i-amnion, kunye ne-yolk sac, ukudala indawo enamanzi apho inokuphefumla kunye nokondla), tetrapods (banemilenze emine, iambulensi okanye ubuqhetseba) kwaye ectothermic (Banobushushu bomzimba obuguqukayo).

Banethuba elibiziweyo inguqu (Utshintsho olwenzeka kwizilwanyana ezithile ngexesha lokuphuhliswa kwebhayiloji kwaye ichaphazela zombini morphology kunye nemisebenzi yazo nendlela yokuphila). Phakathi kolona tshintsho lubalulekileyo kukudlula ukusuka kwiigilizi (ii-novice) ukuya kwimiphunga (yabantu abadala).

Iindidi zasemanzini

INewt, lolunye lweentlobo eziqhelekileyo zezilwanyana eziphila emhlabeni nasemanzini

I-Triton

Ngaphakathi kolu sapho lukhulu lwenziwa zii-amphibians, sinokwenza udidi oluncinci ngokusekwe kwiodolo ezintathu: izilwanyana, caudates o ziqkra y apodal o imthambo.

Los izilwanyana Ziintlobo zezilwanyana eziphila emhlabeni nasemanzini eziqokelelwe ndawonye nazo zonke ezo zinto zisemanzini esizaziyo njengamasele kunye neenzipho. Lumka, isele kunye nexoxo alufani. Badityaniswe ngokudibeneyo kunye nokuziphatha kwabo.

Los ziqkra Zezinye iintlobo zezilwanyana eziphila emhlabeni nasemanzini ezahlukileyo ngokuba nomsila omde kunye nesiqu eside. Amehlo abo awaphuhliswanga ngokugqithisileyo kwaye agqunywe ngolusu oluhle. Apha sifumana i-newts, i-salamanders, iiproteos kunye ne-mermaids.

Okokugqibela, kukho iindidi ze izidalwa eziphila emanzini nasemanzini, ezizezona zibalaseleyo kuzo zonke ngenxa yokubonakala kwazo. Zifana ncakasana nombungu okanye umsundululu kuba azinamalungu omzimba kwaye nomzimba wawo uphakamile.

Iimpawu zeAmphibian

Inkunzi yebhokhwe

Njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, ii-amphibian zizilwanyana ezinomqolo, kwaye "banelungelo" lokuba ngabo ezakudala ngakumbi Kolu didi lwezilwanyana ezihlala kuMhlaba. Kuthiwa bebejikeleze malunga neminyaka engama-300 ezigidi, phantse akukho nto!

Banemilenze emine: ezimbini ngaphambili nangasemva ezimbini. Le milenze yaziwa ngegama eliqaqambileyo lika quirido. I-quiridus ibonakaliswa ngokuba ne-morphology efana nesandla somntu, iminwe emine kwimilenze yangaphambili, kunye nemihlanu ngasemva. Ezinye izilwanyana ezininzi eziphila emanzini nasemhlabeni zinomlenze wesihlanu ofana nomsila.

Ukuba ngabantu abaphilayo be igazi elibandayo, iqondo lobushushu lomzimba wabo lixhomekeke, kwaye kakhulu, kwimeko abakuyo, kuba abakwazi ukulawula ubushushu babo bangaphakathi. Esi sesinye sezizathu zoxinzelelo lwamandla olubakhokelele ekubeni baziqhelanise nobomi emanzini nasemhlabeni. Ezi nkqubo zimbini zikunceda uphephe ukufudumeza okanye ukupholisa umzimba wakho.

yakhe oviparousnjengoko aqanduselwa emaqandeni. Ngowasetyhini ophetheyo ukubeka la maqanda kwaye uhlala esenza njalo kwindawo yasemanzini, kungoko iisampulu ezincinci zinenkqubo yokuphefumla enezikali.

Ulusu lwezi zinto ziphilayo engena ngaphakathi, ukukwazi ukunqunyulwa ziimolekyuli ezahlukeneyo, iigesi kunye namanye amasuntswana. Ezinye iintlobo ziyakwazi ukufihla izinto ezinetyhefu ngolusu lwazo njengenkqubo yokuzikhusela kwiingozi zangaphandle.

Nokuba ujolise kulusu lwakho, kufanelekile ukuba uqaphele ukuba oku kunjalo Kufumile kwaye kuhluthwe abantu ngezikali, ngokungafaniyo nezinye iintlobo zezilwanyana eziziphetheyo. Le meko ivumela ukuba bathathe amanzi ngokufanelekileyo kwaye, ngenxa yoko, ioksijini. Ngokuchasene noko, ibenza babesemngciphekweni omkhulu kwiinkqubo ze ukuphelelwa ngamanzi emzimbeni. Ukuba i-amphibian ikwisimo sokufuma esisezantsi, ulusu lwayo luya koma ngokukhawuleza, nto leyo enokubangela iingxaki ezinkulu kunye nokufa.

Ezi zilwanyana zinenkqubo yokujikeleza kwegazi eyona ndawo iphambili kuyo Intliziyo ye-tricameral yenziwe zii-atria ezimbini kunye ne-ventricle enye. Ukujikeleza kwayo kuvaliwe, kabini kwaye akuphelelanga.

Amehlo ahlala esiba banzi kwaye, endaweni yoko, adumbile, enza ukuba kube lula icandelo elikhulu lokujonga ifaneleke kakhulu xa kuzingelwa ixhoba elinokubakho. Kukho izinto ezingafaniyo nezintsha.

Nangona kungabonakali ngathi, ama-amphibians banamazinyo, nangona ezi zinqabile. Umsebenzi wawo kukunceda ukubamba ukutya. Ulwimi luye lube sisixhobo esifanelekileyo sokubamba ezinye izilwanyana ezincinci. Banikela nge isisu esimile njenge tubular, enamathumbu amafutshane amakhulu, izintso ezimbini, kunye nesinyi somchamo.

Imizekelo yee-amphibians

Intulo

Intulo

Okwangoku, kukho ikhathalogu ejikeleze ezinye I-3.500 yeentlobo zezilwanyana eziphila emhlabeni nasemanzini. Nangona kunjalo, oososayensi, kuqikelelo lwabo, baqikelela ukuba inani elipheleleyo lisenokuba lijikeleze 6.400.

Xa sicinga ngama-amphibians, umfanekiso wexoxo okanye isele usoloko uvela ezintlokweni zethu, kodwa sinezinye izilwanyana ezinjengeentsha kunye neesalamanders.

Le yimizekelo nje yee-amphibians, nangona, ewe, zininzi kakhulu:

UAnderson intulo (Ambystoma andersoni)

Olu hlobo lwesalamander lukwabizwa ngokuba yi-axolotl okanye i-purepecha achoque. Luhlobo lwendalo, oko kukuthi, lukhona kuphela kwindawo ethile. Kule meko, uhlala kwiZacapu Lagoon, ekummandla waseMichoacán (eMexico).

Kubonakala ikakhulu ngokuba nomzimba otyebileyo, umsila omfutshane kunye neigilizi. Umbala wayo o-orenji okanye obomvu, ongezwe kumabala ayo amnyama anwenwela kuwo wonke umzimba wawo, uyenza ingabonakali.

IMarbled Newt (iTriturus marmoratus)

Esi silwanyana simi ikakhulu kwimimandla yaseYurophu, ngakumbi emantla eSpain nakwimpuma yeFrance. Inombala oluhlaza okhatshwa ziithoni eziluhlaza kakhulu. Ukongeza, umva wayo uwele umgca othe nkqo wombala obomvu.

Udoti oqhelekileyo (iBufo bufo)

Kuqhelekile ukuyifumana phantse kwilizwekazi lonke laseYurophu nakwinxalenye yeAsia. Ukhetha indawo yokuhlala enamanzi amileyo, indawo ezinkcenkceshelwayo, njl. Mhlawumbi, ukumelana neemeko zokuphila emanzini angahlambulukanga kuye kwayenza enye yezona ndawo zixhaphakileyo nezaziwayo. Ayinayo imibala eqaqambileyo, kodwa isikhumba sayo sinetoni "emdaka", egqunywe ngamaqhuma aliqela ngohlobo lweentsumpa.

Ixoxo leVermilion (Rana temporaria)

Njengezihlobo zayo ezikhankanywe apha ngasentla, le amphibiya yenze iYurophu neAsia ukuba ibe likhaya layo. Nangona ikhetha indawo ezinomswakama, elisele lichitha ixesha elininzi liphuma emanzini. Ayisiyoyopateni yombala omiselweyo, kodwa umntu ngamnye unokuveza imibala eyahlukeneyo. Ngaphandle koku, isikhumba esimdaka ngebala kunye namachaphaza amancinci athambekele ekufumaneni. Impumlo ebonisiweyo yenye yeempawu zayo.

Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Izilwanyana zasemanzini ezinetyhefu

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