Izinto eziphilayo zaselwandle zePelagic kunye ne-benthic

elwandle

Zombini iilwandle kunye neelwandle, ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo, yenye yemithombo esisityebi, ngokwe-biodiversity, kwiplanethi Umhlaba. Ngaphakathi ngaphakathi kuhlala iindwendwe ezingenakubalwa ezenza iindawo ezinomdla. Imikhosi eyahlukileyo, ngokukodwa, kubume bayo, ubungakanani, umbala, imikhwa, iindlela zokondla, njl.

Ngokucacileyo, i-ecosystems yasemanzini yahluke kakhulu enye kwenye. Iimpawu zabo zinokwahluka kakhulu, ezichaphazela, ngendlela ekhethekileyo, zabo amandla okuhlala okanye hayi.

Ngokusengqiqweni, iimeko zokuhlala emanzini anzulu okanye kufutshane nonxweme azifani. Kulapho, ukukhanya kuninzi kakhulu, iqondo lobushushu liyahluka, kwaye imisinga kunye nokuhamba kwamanzi kuhlala kuyinto eyingozi. Nangona kunjalo, njengoko sisihla singena nzulu, sifumana umfanekiso ohluke ngokupheleleyo. Ngesi sizathu, izinto eziphilayo zahlukile kakhulu ngokuxhomekeke kwindawo yolwandle okanye yolwandle apho baphucula khona ubomi babo.

Kulapha apho amagama amabini anokungaziwa kuthi enza ukubonakala kwawo: ipelagic y benthic.

Pelagic kunye benthic

Intlanzi yeKoyi

IPelagic ibhekisa kwinxalenye yolwandle engaphezulu kwendawo ye pelagic. Oko kukuthi, kwikholamu yamanzi engekho kwi-shelf yelizwekazi okanye kwi-crust, kodwa isondele kuyo. Kukulula kwamanzi okungenabunzulu obuthile. Ngokwenxalenye yayo, i-benthic ichasene. Inxulumene nayo yonke into inxibelelene nolwandle nolwandle.

Ukuthetha nje, izinto eziphila emanzini, kubandakanya iintlanzi, zahlulwe zaziintsapho ezimbini ezinkulu: izinto eziphilayo zepelagic y eziphilayo benthic.

Okulandelayo, siqhubeka ukuchaza nganye nganye yazo:

Inkcazo yezinto eziphilayo ze-pelagic

Xa sithetha ngezinto eziphilayo ze pelagic, sibhekisa kuzo zonke iintlobo zezinto eziphilayo amanzi aphakathi kweelwandle kunye nolwandle, okanye kufutshane nomphezulu. Ke ngoko, kuyacaca ukuba olu hlobo lwezidalwa eziphila emanzini lubeka umda kunxibelelwano kwiindawo ezinzulu kakhulu.

Zisasazwe kwiindawo ezikhanyisiweyo, ukusuka kumphezulu ngokwawo ukuya kuthi ga kubunzulu beemitha ezingama-200. Olu luhlu luyaziwa njenge indawo ye-phiotic.

Kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba utshaba oluphambili lwazo zonke izinto eziphilayo kukuloba ngokungakhethiyo.

Zimbini iintlobo eziphambili zezinto eziphilayo zepelagic: nekton, plakton kunye neuston.

Incton

It kukho iintlanzi, Ufudo, Cetaceans, cephalopods, njalo njalo. Izinto eziphilayo, ngenxa yokuhamba kwazo, zi Iyakwazi ukumelana nemisinga yolwandle eyomeleleyo.

IPlakton

Ziye zaphawulwa, ngokusisiseko, ngokuba nemilinganiselo emincinci, ngamanye amaxesha microscopic. Banokuba bohlobo lwemifuno (phytoplankton) okanye uhlobo lwezilwanyana (zooplankton). Ngelishwa, ezi zinto ziphilayo, ngenxa yokwakheka komzimba, abakwazi ukubetha imisinga yolwandle, ke batsalwa ngabo.

UNeuston

Zizo ezo zinto ziphilayo ezenze umphezulu womfanekiso bhanyabhanya wamanzi ikhaya labo.

Intlanzi yePelagic

Intlanzi yePelagic

Ukuba sijolise kwiqela elenza intlanzi ye pelagic ngolu hlobo, singenza olunye ulwahlulo, olulele ngendlela efanayo, kuxhomekeke kwiindawo ezihlala emanzini ezihlala kuzo:

Iipelagics zonxweme

Izinto eziphila kunxweme lwe-pelagic zihlala ziintlanzi ezincinci ezihlala kwizikolo ezikhulu ezijikeleza ishelfu yelizwekazi nakufuphi nomphezulu womhlaba. Umzekelo woku zizilwanyana ezinjengee-anchovies okanye iisardadi.

Ipelagics yolwandle                          

Ngaphakathi kweli qela kukho iintlobo eziphakathi nezikhulu ezihlala zifuduka. Zonke zinempawu, zombini ezomzimba kunye nezomzimba, ezifanayo kakhulu nezalamane zazo zonxweme, ngelixa iindlela zazo zokondla zahlukile.

Ngaphandle kokukhula okukhawulezayo kunye nokuzala okuphezulu, uxinano lwabemi babo lusezantsi kakhulu, lubenza ukuba ukukhula kwabo kucothe. Oku ikakhulu kungenxa yokuba baphantsi kokuloba okukhulu.

Iintlanzi ezifana ne-tuna kunye ne-bonito ziimpawu eziqhelekileyo zezilwanyana zaselwandle.

Isifanokuthi sezidalwa zepelagic

Kuba igama elithi pelagic libhekisa kwindawo ethile yolwandle nolwandle, kuphakama igama elisetyenziswayo ukulikhankanya kwimeko yalo njengoko linjalo "ulwandle". Kwaye ke, ngendlela efanayo esenza izingqinisiso kwizinto eziphilayo ze-pelagic kunye neentlanzi, sinokuthetha nazo njenge iintlanzi okanye izinto eziphila enzonzobileni.

Ingcaciso ngezinto eziphilayo

ICarp, intlanzi ipelagic

Izinto eziphilayo ze-Benthic zezo zihlala kunye Imvelaphi yezinto eziphila emanzini, ngokungafaniyo nezinto eziphilayo zepelagic.

Kwezi ndawo zolwandle apho ukukhanya kunye nokungafihli nto kuvela, ukuya kwinqanaba elincinci, ewe, sifumana abavelisi bokuqala be-benthic gcina (abanakho ukuvelisa ukutya kwabo).

Sele ebhaptiziwe kwi Imvelaphi yeaphoticUkungabikho kokukhanya kwaye kubekwe kwindawo enzulu, kukho izinto eziphilayo, ezixhomekeke kwizidalwa eziphilayo kunye nezinto ezincinci ezithi zitsale kwelona manqanaba aphezulu amanzi ukuze zizondle.

Ityala elikhethekileyo yibacteria, kwelinye icala chemosynthesizers kwaye kwelinye ulwalamano (Zixhomekeke kwezinye izinto eziphilayo), ezibekwe kwiindawo ezinothusayo njengamanqaku athile aphakathi kolwandlekazi.

Ekuboneni kokuqala, ayimangalisi into yokuba, emva kokufunda oku kungentla, asiqhelananga nezinto eziphilayo ze-benthic. Akukho nto inokuthi iqhubeke nenyaniso. Kukho iintlobo ezinxulumene nazo ezaziwa kakhulu kwaye zaziwa ngabo bonke: iikorale.

Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo, iingqaqa zekorale yenye yezona zixhobo zixabisekileyo kumama ongumhlaba. Nangona kunjalo, kwaye ngelishwa, zezona zisengozini. Ezinye iindlela zokuloba, ngamanye amaxesha ezingafane zibekho, ziyazibulala. Sithetha, umzekelo, ngeminatha yokuloba, engunobangela weengxaki ezinzulu zokusingqongileyo.

Zininzi ezinye izinto eziphilayo ziyinxalenye yosapho olukhulu lwe-benthic. Sithetha nge echinoderms (iinkwenkwezi kunye neeurchins zolwandle), the ipluronectiform (soles nokunye okunjalo), the cephalopods (i-octopus kunye ne-cuttlefish), i bivalve y iimollusk kunye nezinye iintlobo ze ulwelwe.

Intlanzi yeBenthic

Intlanzi yeBenthic

Njengoko sele kukhankanyiwe apha ngasentla, ngaphakathi kwezinto eziphilayo zeshumi elinesibini sifumana ezo ntlobo zeentlanzi zihlelwe njenge "peluronectiform", eyokulandelelana kweentlanzi i-flounder, iqhude kunye yedwa.

Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Iintlanzi

Ezi ntlanzi zibonakaliswa ngokuba ne-morphology ekhethekileyo. Umzimba wakhe, ucinezelwe kakhulu emva kwexesha, uzobe imilo ethe tyaba, kushiya kungekho mntu ungakhathaliyo. Kumantshontsho eminwe, anokulingana macala, kunye neliso kwicala ngalinye. Ulungelelwaniso lwangasemva oluye lwanyamalala njengoko lukhula. Abantu abadala, abaphumla kwelinye lamacala abo, banomzimba othe tyaba kwaye amanye ahlelwe kwicala elingasentla.

Njengomthetho, kunjalo iintlanzi ezitya inyama, Ababanjiweyo babo baqhutywa kusetyenziswa indlela yokulandelela.

Ezona ntlobo zixhaphakileyo, kuba zezona zisetyenziswa kakhulu kwicandelo lokupheka nokuloba, zezi wedwa kunye i-turbot.

Ntonye of eziphilayo benthic

Ukuba sijonga iincwadi ezahlukeneyo zesayensi ezinikezelwe kulawulo lwerhafu kunye nokuhlelwa kobukumkani bezilwanyana, sinokufumana izinto eziphilayo kunye ne-benthic ngokulula "Bentos" o "Benthic".

Indalo lihlabathi elinomdla, kwaye izinto eziphilayo zasemanzini zifanelwe sisahluko esahlukileyo. Ukuthetha ngezinto eziphilayo ze-pelagic kunye ne-benthic yinto enzima kakhulu kwaye inzima kakhulu. Olu hlaziyo lincinci lubalaselisa, ngemivumbo ebanzi, iinkcukacha ezahlula enye kwenye.


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  1.   UJose Fernando Obama sitsho

    umzekeliso olungileyo kunye nesishwankathelo esihle
    ayikho enye into ngaphandle kokuqhubeka ngoluhlobo kwaye ndiyabulela kakhulu ngeecal, sele k, iluncedo kakhulu

  2.   UJavier chavez sitsho

    inyani ibibonakala inomdla kakhulu kum, kuluncedo kakhulu ukubuyela kwesi sihloko, imibuliso.