Izinhlanzi zamathambo

Izinhlanzi ze-salmon

Emanzini agcwele izilwandle zethu, imifula nezilwandle, kunezinhlobonhlobo zezidalwa eziphilayo. Mhlawumbe, isihloko sozwela kakhulu kubo bonke ngesenhlanzi. Lezi zidalwa ezikhethekile zisinikeza izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zobunjwa, imibala, njll., Kepha, futhi ngaphandle kwalesi simo, iningi lazo lingamalungu eqembu elikhethekile esinikeza igama lalo izinhlanzi zamathambo.

Iyini inhlanzi emathambo?

Izinhlanzi zamathambo yilezo zinhlanzi ama-vertebrate nama-gnathostomes (ama-vertebrate abonakala ngokuba nemihlathi echaziwe). Banikezwe ngamathambo angaphakathi amathambo, yingakho igama labo. Bayaziwa futhi ngokuthi Osteictians.

Inhlanzi ye-Carp

Lawo mathambo angamathambo angaphakathi yisimo esiyinhloko esibahlukanisa nelinye iqembu elikhulu lezinhlanzi: izinhlanzi ezinesigaxa. Njengokulangazelela, kufanele kuthiwe kuneqembu lesithathu lezinhlanzi, elenziwe ngezinhlanzi ngaphandle komhlathi. Lezi zokugcina azivamile kakhulu futhi kunezinhlobo ezimbalwa kakhulu zezinhlobo zazo okukhona, ngokwesibonelo, izibani.

Izinhlanzi ezingama-Bony, ikakhulukazi, izinhlanzi esijwayele ukuzibona, okungukuthi, izinhlobo ezivame kakhulu njenge-salmon ejwayelekile, i-trout, i-aquarium fish, njll. Ngokuphambene nalokho, izinhlanzi ezihlwabusayo, uma sikhuluma kabanzi, zingoshaka, imisebe nama-mantana.

Izici eziyinhloko zezinhlanzi zamathambo

Izinhlanzi zasePiranha

Amathambo ezinhlanzi zamathambo ahlukaniswe izigaba eziningana: the amathambo e-axial, okunguyena ophethe ingxenye emaphakathi; amathambo e-cephalic ahlala engxenyeni yekhanda; i Amathambo ezoni, lena eseduze kwamaphiko okhalweni nawomgogodla; kanye ne- uhlaka lwamathambo, okuyiyona eyakha amaphiko.

Mhlawumbe umehluko omkhulu phakathi kwezinhlanzi ezinamathambo nezinhlanzi ezisemathanjeni ungaphakathi. Izinhlanzi ezingama-Bony azinayo i- valve Kuvunguza, kodwa banazo i-pyloric blind futhi bakuswela lokho indlala engunxande.

Uhlelo lokuphefumula lwezinhlanzi ezinamathambo lunazo gill etholakala ngaphakathi kwegumbi le-gill, futhi embozwe uhlobo lwe-operculum oluveza kuphela ukuvuleka okuncane kwe-brachial ohlangothini ngalunye lwesilwane. Kuyaqabukela, yize kungenzeka futhi, ukuthi kuqhamuke i-preoperculum, kepha siyaphikelela ukuthi kuyinto engajwayelekile. Ama-gill athi, kufanele kuqashelwe ukuthi awahlukaniswa yi-septa.

Kwezinye izinhlobo zezinhlanzi ezingamathambo, i- ukubhukuda isinye iguquke yaba yiphaphu. Leli phaphu liyabasiza ukuba bahlale betha, bahambe babheke phezulu.

Umlomo walezi zilwane ubizwa ngokuthi umlomo wokugcina, okwazi ukunyakaza okunembe kakhulu, ikakhulukazi ngenxa ye- amathambo e-dermal acacisiwe okwakhiwa ngalo. Amazinyo imvamisa ayizandiso ezincane zala mathambo e-dermal, futhi kufanele kuthiwe ukuphuka noma ukulahleka kwawo kuba ngumonakalo ongalungiseki.

Esinye isici ukuthi ngaphezu kwalesi skeleton sangaphakathi, futhi banamathambo ezingxenyeni zesikhumba sabo njengezikali. Lapho kukhonjwa ukuthi ngabe inhlanzi enamathambo ingeyohlobo oluthile noma olunye, lezi zikali, ikakhulukazi lezo ezitholakala kuhlobo lwazo umugqa ohlangothini nowewela ngaphesheya, zingasisiza kakhulu.

Endabeni yamaphiko, izinhlanzi ezinamathambo zinezinto ezimbalwa ze- amaphiko okhalo, i-pair of amaphiko wesifuba o ama-pectorals (ahambisana ngokuma komzimba nesimo sawo) no noma amaphiko amaningi wangemuva noma endunu. Ngokuya ngokuthi amaphiko we-pelvic ne-thoracic atholakala kuphi, kuvela izinhlobo ezine zezinhlanzi ezingamathambo: isisus (uma amaphiko we-pelvic ehlala ngemuva kwamaphiko we-thoracic), i-thoracic (uma amaphiko ekhaba asezingeni eliphakeme elifanayo noma ngemuva kancane kwaleyo enesigaxa), ama-yogula (uma amaphiko we-pelvic ephambi kwamaphiko we-thoracic) futhi, ekugcineni, i- apodal (Yilezo zinhlanzi ezinamathambo ezingenazo amaphiko okhalo).

Ukudla

Izinhlanzi zomfula

Ukupheka ngamazinyo, okungukuthi, amazinyo, kanye nokuma kohlelo lokugaya ukudla kuyanquma lapho kucaciswa ukudliwa kwalezi zinhlanzi. Imvamisa, imvamisa ziyizilwane ezidla inyama, enesisu esikhulu, esine-pyloric cecum eminingana, nethumbu elifushane futhi eliqondile.

Kodwa-ke, kukhona izinhlanzi ezinamathambo ukudla kwazo kungohlobo lohlobo oludlayo, isisu sazo silula, kwesinye isikhathi esihlukanisayo, okwenza isisu esijwayelekile nenye i-crusher. Ngokwengxenye yayo, amathumbu ayinkimbinkimbi futhi made kakhulu.

Ukuzala

Ibhange lezinhlanzi

Ukukhiqizwa kabusha kwezinhlanzi ezingamathambo kuyinto ubulili, ethula abantu bobulili obuhlukile. Kumele kuthiwe ezinhlotsheni eziningi zezinhlanzi ezinamathambo kunzima kakhulu ukuhlukanisa phakathi kwabesilisa nabesifazane, ngoba azivezi isimilo esicacile sobulili. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kunezinhlobo ezithile lapho ubulili, ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, buhlehliswa khona. Lezi zinhlobonhlobo zezinhlanzi ezingamathambo zaziwa njengezinhlanzi ezilandelanayo ze-hermaphrodite.

Abesilisa abanaso isitho se-copulatory ngoba ukukhulelwa kungaphandle, ngaphandle kokunye okuhlukile lapho abesilisa benamaphiko endunu enza inqubo yokufaka umquba ngaphakathi.

Iningi labo liyizinhlanzi oviparous, yize kujwayelekile ukuthi kuvele amacala ezinhlanzi ezingamathambo umabhebhana y viviparous. Izinhlobo ezithile zezinhlanzi ezingamathambo zinakekela amaqanda azo aze achamuke bese kuzalwa amaphuphu, kepha lokhu akujwayelekile.

Isikhathi esithandwayo sokuzalisa sincike kakhulu kohlobo.

Umehluko phakathi kwezinhlanzi ezingamathambo kanye nenhlanzi enesigaxa

Inhlanzi yomfula

Njengoba sekuchaziwe noma kucashunwe kuyo yonke le ndatshana, ngaphakathi kwezinhlanzi zomhlaba jikelele, sithola izinhlobo ezimbili eziyinhloko: izinhlanzi zamathambo y inhlanzi enesigaxa. Yize kungahle kube nokufana okuningi phakathi kwabo, kunokuningi umehluko okubahlukanisayo.

Izinhlanzi ze-Bony ngokusobala zine- skeleton umzimba wethambo kuyilapho leyo yenhlanzi enesigaxa yakhiwa ngu inhliziyo.

Ezinhlanzini zamathambo yebo ukubhukuda isinye futhi a umsila fin lobes alinganayo. Endabeni yezinhlanzi ezinesigaxa, asikho isinye sokubhukuda futhi i I-tail fin ine-lobes ehlukile.

Izikali ezisezinhlanzini zamathambo zikhona uhlobo lwe-cycloid. Izinhlanzi ezinesigaxa semizimba imizimba yazo imbozwe izikali ezincane ze uhlobo lwe-placoid hhayi ukugqagqana.

Ngokuqondene nokuphefumula, kukhona nomunye umehluko. Ezinhlanzini zamathambo kukhona amabhangqa amane amagill kanye ne-gill operculumKodwa-ke, akunjalo ezinhlanzini ezinesihlungu. Laba abakhona amabhangqa amahlanu noma ayisithupha okuvuleka kwegill futhi akukho gill operculum.

Izibonelo zezinhlanzi ezingamathambo

Iqembu le-trout liyabhukuda

Ngokuyinhloko, iningi lezinhlanzi esizaziyo zingezase "club" yezinhlanzi ezingamathambo. Kunganikezwa inani elikhulu lezibonelo. Nazi ezinye: grouper, sardines, salmon, hake, carp, mackerel, sea bass, bonito, salmon, horse mackerel, njll..

Ukwahlukaniswa kwezinhlanzi ezingamathambo

Inhlanzi ngaphansi kolwandle

Emndenini wezinhlanzi ezingamathambo, singasungula umehluko noma ukuhlukaniswa okusha, abaphikisi babo abane- lindokuhle futhi i sarcopterygios.

I-Los lindokuhle Ziyizinhlanzi ezingamathambo ezikhiphe amaphiko akhiwe yizicubu zethambo. Ugebhezi lwayo ikakhulukazi lwenziwe ngezicubu zesigaxa. Zinezimbobo ezimbili zegill ezivikelwe i-operculum, futhi izikali ziyamangalisa futhi ziyisisekelo. Azinayo ikhala langaphakathi noma i-cloaca.

I-Los sarcopterygios izinhlanzi ezingamathambo zinamaphiko ngisho enezicubu ezinamanzi noma eziwumbala. Lezi zimpiko zifana kakhulu namaphiko amanye ama-amphibian, okuba luphawu olucace bha lwenqubo yokuziphendukela kwemvelo. Ngaphakathi kwazo, sinokunye ukuhlukaniswa, phakathi kwezinhlanzi coelacantiforms, oteketiswa ngokuthi coelacanths, nezinhlanzi amaphaphu o I-Dipneas.

Siyethemba ukuthi sikwazile ukukuletha kuleli qembu lezilwane ezikhona osukwini lwethu lwanamuhla nasezimpilweni zethu zansuku zonke, kepha okungenzeka ukuthi asizazi izinto ezithile ezizenza zibe izinhlanzi ezikhetheke kakhulu.


Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.