Osmoregulation

I-carp yamanzi ahlanzekile nge-osmoregulation

Enye yezinqubo eziyisisekelo zebhayoloji ezintweni eziphilayo futhi, ngaphezu kwakho konke, kulabo abahlala emikhakheni yezemvelo yasemanzini yi- ukulele, obeye aziwe njengo ibhalansi ye-osmotic.

Konke ukuphendula komzimba okudingekayo empilweni kwenzeka endaweni enamanzi noma ewuketshezi. Ukuze kusebenze kahle lokhu kuphendula, kuyadingeka ukuthi ukugxila kwamanzi kanye solutes (onke lawo makhompiyutha anesisindo esiphansi asiza ukugcina ifayili le- ibhalansi ye-osmoticoscillate ngaphakathi kwamamaki amancane, kunqubo ebizwa ukulele

Singachaza ifayela le- ukulele Njengendlela egcina i-homeostasis yomzimba, okungeyona enye into ngaphandle kwekhono lezinto eziphilayo ukugcina isimo sazo sangaphakathi sizinzile ngokuya ngoshintsho olungenzeka phesheya ngokushintshaniswa kwendaba namandla okufanayo.

Konke lokhu kuxhomeke ekushintsheni okulawulwayo kokuncibilika kuketshezi lwangaphakathi nakulabo abasendaweni. Lokhu kusiholela ekulawulweni kokuhamba kwamanzi kudlala indima ebalulekile.

Lo mthetho wokuhamba kwamanzi wenziwa ngu osmosis, okuyisimo esingokomzimba esisuselwa ekunyakazeni ketshezi elixazululekayo elidlula kulwelwesi olungenakutholakala. Le nto ivela ngenxa yokwanda okulula okungadingi ukusetshenziswa kwamandla futhi okubaluleke kakhulu ekuguqulweni kwamaselula okulungile kwezinto eziphilayo.

Ngamafuphi, futhi njengesifinyezo esijwayelekile, i- ukulele isisiza ekwenzeni izingqinamba ze solutes izinto eziphilayo ezikhona ngaphakathi (isibonelo: amaseli) nemvelo ezibazungezile, zivame ukuzilinganisela ngokunyakaza nokugeleza okunqamula ulwelwesi olungenakudlula. Isimo esinjalo sisivumela ukuthi silawule i- ingcindezi osmotic (ingcindezi eyenziwayo ukuze kumiswe ukugeleza okuthile kwe-solvent okungena ngaphakathi kolwelwesi).

Ibhalansi ye-Osmotic ezilwaneni

izinhlanzi zasolwandle

Ezilwaneni eziningi, uketshezi olunikeza amaseli isosmotic uma kuqhathaniswa noketshezi oluhlala ngaphakathi kwamaseli. Kusho ukuthini lokhu? Ngoba uketshezi ngaphakathi nangaphandle kwamangqamuzana lune-a ingcindezi osmotic kufana kakhulu. Lokhu ukuvimbela iseli ekuvukeleni ngokweqile, njengoba kungenzeka ku-a Isixazululo se-hypotonic, noma ukushwabana, okuthile okwenzeka kufayela le- izixazululo zehypertonic.

Ukuze ukwazi ukugcina lezo ziketshezi isosmotic Ezinhlangothini zombili ze-membrane ye-plasma, abakwenzayo ukusebenzisa amandla amakhulu abakwazi ukupompa ngawo uNa + ngaphakathi kweseli ngaphandle ngokuhamba okusebenzayo.

Amaseli ezilwane abona kufayela le- isixazululo isosmotic indawo efanelekayo yokusebenza nokusebenza kwayo okufanele. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ezitshalweni akunjalo. Amaseli ezitshalo atholakala ku isixazululo isosmotic bangalahlekelwa kakhulu yi-turgor, ngoba lawa maseli ayakwazi ukugcina odongeni lwawo lweseli amanani aphezulu we-solute ngawo afinyelela ivolumu enkulu nokunwebeka.

I-Osmorregulation ezilwaneni zasemanzini

ibhalansi ye-osmotic

Izilwane zasemanzini zikwazile ukuzivumelanisa nenhlanganisela ebanzi yezindawo zokuhlala, ezisukela emanzini ahlanzekile (ngembalwa kakhulu solutes) emanzini anosawoti aphezulu (inani elikhulu le- solutes). Lokhu kubenze ukuthi babhekane nezinkinga zokulawulwa komthetho we ibhalansi ye-osmotic hlukanani kakhulu komunye nomunye. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kufanelekile ukuthi sisho ukuthi uhlobo ngalunye noma umzimba usebenza ngaphakathi kobubanzi bokuhlungwa kwe-osmotic yemvelo enikeziwe.

Kulokhu, singahlukanisa phakathi:

  • Amapayipi: izidalwa ezibekezelela uhla oluncane lukasawoti ojwayelekile wemvelo yangaphandle, noma ngabe kungamanzi ahlanzekile noma amanzi anosawoti.
  • I-Eurihalinos: izidalwa ezibekezelela uhla olukhulu kakhulu lukasawoti ojwayelekile wemvelo yangaphandle, noma ngabe kungamanzi ahlanzekile noma amanzi anosawoti.

Ngokuyinhloko, kunezindlela ezimbili eziyisisekelo zokufeza okulindelwe isikhathi eside ukulele.

Okokuqala sinikezwa i kucofe, ebhekisa kulezo zilwane ezise- ibhalansi ye-osmotic njalo nemvelo abahlala kuyo, iba yizilwane isosmitic nemvelo yayo yemvelo. Imvamisa kuyizinto eziphilayo ezitholakala ikakhulu emanzini ahlanzekile, yize ezinye futhi zikwenza emanzini angaphephile aqukethe usawoti othile.

Futhi, ngokwesibili, sinezilwane osokugulators, okufanele izame ukugcina leyo bhalansi ye-osmotic nemvelo yayo. Lokhu kusho izindleko zamandla ezihlukahluka kuye ngokutholakala kwesikhumba noma ingaphandle lesilwane. Kufanele futhi kushiwo ukuthi uma ngabe osmolarity oketshezi lomzimba kukhulu kunokwemvelo, sibhekene nesilwane okune-hyperosmotic. Kodwa-ke, uma incane kakhulu, sizothi yisilwane mthokozisi.

Osmoregulation ezinhlanzini zasemanzini angenasawoti

osmoregulation-fresh-amanzi-inhlanzi

Ezinhlanzi zasemanzini angenasawoti, ukugxila kwe-ion emzimbeni wabo ngokuqinisekile kuphakeme kunasemanzini. Lokhu kudala ukusakazeka okungapheli kwamanzi angena nge-epithelium yama-gill nawo wonke umzimba wakho uye ngaphakathi.

Lokhu kungashintshwa ngenxa yokuthi izinso zaleli qembu lezinhlanzi zikhiqiza umchamo omkhulu. Kulokhu kufanele kungezwe ukuthi ngokuba nosawoti wokuhlushwa ukuthi amanzi ahlala kuwo, alahlekelwa yini ama-electrolyte, okufanele bazinxephezele ngokumunca usawoti ngemishayo yabo.

Inhlanzi eyikati
I-athikili ehlobene:
Inhlanzi enkulu engenamanzi emhlabeni

I-Osmoregulation ezinhlanzini zamanzi anosawoti

osmoregulation-fish-marios

Inqubo ukulele Ezinhlanzini zamanzi anosawoti, noma izinhlanzi zasolwandle, okuphambene nalokho kunjalo ngezihlobo zazo zamanzi ahlanzekile. Kulokhu, amanzi ageleza ngaphakathi komzimba wenhlanzi, aphumele ngaphandle. I- ama-ion egcina amanzi angene emzimbeni walesi silwane ngemigodi. Lokhu kungaholela enkingeni enkulu, okungeyona enye ngaphandle kwengozi yokuphelelwa amandla kwamanzi.

Ukuze kugwenywe ukuphelelwa amanzi emzimbeni, izinhlanzi zasolwandle zihlala zigaxa amanzi amaningi, nosawoti okweqile okhiqizwayo bakhishelwa ngaphandle ngemizila emithathu: indle, umchamo nemishayo uqobo.

El ibhalansi ye-osmotic, a priori, kungabonakala kuyinto enzima kakhulu futhi eyinkimbinkimbi ukuyiqonda. Kodwa-ke, ibalulekile empilweni, ngoba zonke izinto eziphilayo zincike kuyo. Kubalulekile futhi ukuthi yaziwe yibo bonke abathanda izinhlanzi, ngoba ngale ndlela bangaqonda kangcono ukusebenza kwangaphakathi kwezilwane zabo. Siyethemba ukuthi sikwazi ukukusiza futhi sicacise ukungabaza okuthile maqondana nale ndaba eyisicefe.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.