Hove dzeBony

Salmon hove

Mumvura dzinogara mumakungwa edu, nzizi uye makungwa, mune zvipenyu zvakasiyana siyana. Zvichida, zita kune vanonzwira tsitsi kupfuura vese ndere hove. Izvi zvisikwa zvakasarudzika zvinotipa akasiyana siyana maumbirwo, mavara, nezvimwewo, zvisinei, uye kunyangwe iri mamiriro, mazhinji acho inhengo dzeboka rakasarudzika ratinopa zita rekuti hove dzemabhonzo.

Chii chinonzi bhonzo hove?

Hove dzemabhonzo ndiyo hove dziya vertebrates uye gnathostomes (vertebrate inoratidzwa nekuve yakashama shaya). Ivo vakapihwa nechomukati bony skeleton, saka zita ravo. Ivo vanozivikanwa zvakare se osteictians.

Carp hove

Iro remukati bhonzo mafupa ndiwo mamiriro makuru anovasiyanisa kubva kune rimwe boka hombe rehove: hove dzemhasuru. Sechido, zvinofanirwa kutaurwa kuti kune boka rechitatu rehove, iro rinoumbwa nehove dzisina shaya. Iyo yekupedzisira ishoma kwazvo uye panongova nenhamba shoma kwazvo yezvisikwa pakati payo iri semuenzaniso, mwenje.

Bony hove, kunyanya, hove dzatajaira kuona, ndiko kuti, mhando dzinozivikanwa zvakanyanya senge yakajairwa salmon, trout, hove ye aquarium, nezvimwe. Panzvimbo iyoyo, hove shwashwa, kutaura zvakafara, mashark, mwaranzi uye mantas.

Hunhu hukuru hwemabhonzo ehove

Piranha hove

Mafupa ehove dzemabhonzo akapatsanurwa muzvikamu zvinoverengeka: iyo axial marangwanda, inova ndiyo inobata chikamu chepakati; iyo cephalic skeleton inobata chikamu chemusoro; iyo zonal skeleton, iyo iri padhuze nepini yechiuno neyechipfuva; uye iyo marangwanda emapendekete, inova ndiyo inogadzira zvimbi.

Zvichida misiyano mizhinji iri pakati pehove dzemabhonzo nehove dzemhashu dziri mukati. Hove dzeBony hadzina iyo Spiral vharafu, asi vakaita pyloric mapofu varume uye vanoshaya izvozvo rectal shwanu.

Nzira yekufema yehove dzemabhonzo dzine gill iri mukati mekamuri yemagill, uye yakafukidzwa nerudzi rweoperculum iyo inongoburitsa pachena kuvhurika kwebrachial kudivi rega remhuka. Kashoma, kunyangwe zvichikwanisika, kuti preoperculum inowoneka, asi isu tinosimbirira kuti ndechimwe chinhu chisina kujairika. Yakati gills, zvinofanirwa kucherechedzwa kuti havana kupatsanurwa nesepta.

Mune mamwe marudzi ehove dzemabhonzo, iyo kushambira dundira yakashanduka kuita mapapu. Iyi mapapu inovabatsira kuti varambe vachiyangarara, kufamba vakatwasuka.

Muromo wemhuka idzi unonzi iwo wekupedzisira muromo, uyo unokwanisa kufamba kwakanyatsonaka, kunyanya nekuda kwe yakataurwa dermal mapfupa iyo inoumbwa nayo. Iwo mazino anowanzo kuve madiki madiki eaya dermal mapfupa, uye zvinofanirwa kutaurwa kuti kutsemuka kana kurasikirwa kwavo kunova kusingagadzirisike kukuvara.

Humwe hunhu ndehwekuti pamusoro peiyo skeleton remukati, zvakare vane mapfupa muzvikamu zveganda ravo sezvikero. Kana zvasvika pakusarudza kana hove yemabhonzo ndeyemhando imwe kana imwe, aya masikero, kunyanya ayo anowanikwa mune avo lateral uye inopindirana mutsetse, vanogona kutibatsira zvikuru.

Panyaya yemapini, hove dzemabhonzo dzine akati wandei chiuno zvimbi, vaviri zvimbi zvemumhashu o pectorals (iwo akaenzana maererano nechimiro chemuviri uye chimiro) uye a kana zvimbi zvakati wandei kana zvemashure. Zvichienderana nekuti panowanikwa mhezi dzechiuno nerechivi, mhando ina dzehove dzemabhonzo dzinobuda. dumbus (kana mapini echiuno achigara ari kumashure kwemapapiro emhashu), thoracic (kana mapini echiuno ari pakukwirira kwakaenzana kana kuti zvishoma kuseri kweiyo yetracic), yogulars (kana mapini echiuno ari pamberi pechigunwe chechipfuva) uye, pakupedzisira, iyo apodal (Ndidzo hove dzemabhonzo dzinoshaya mapini echiuno).

Zvokudya

Rwizi salmoni

Teething, ndiko kuti, mazino, uye chimiro chegadziriro yekugaya chinogadzirisa kana uchitsanangura kudya kwehove idzi. Kazhinji, dzinowanzova mhuka dzinodya, ine dumbu rakakura, iro rine akati wandei pyloric cecum, uye pfupi uye yakatwasuka ura.

Nekudaro, kune hove dzemabhonzo idzo dzinodyiwa ndedzemhando inodyisa, idumbu rayo rakareruka, iro dzimwe nguva rinopatsanuka, zvichikonzera mudumbu rakajairika uye imwe crusher. Kune chikamu chayo, ura hwakaomesesa uye hwakareba.

Kuberekerwa

Bhangi rehove

Kubereka kwehove dzemabhonzo ndiko zvepabonde, ichipa vanhu vevasikana vakasiyana. Izvo zvinofanirwa kutaurwa kuti mumarudzi mazhinji ehove dzemabhonzo zvakanyanya, zvakaoma kwazvo kusiyanisa pakati pevarume nevakadzi, nekuti ivo havaratidzi yakajeka dimorphism. Kune rimwe divi, kune mamwe marudzi mune iyo bonde, nekufamba kwenguva, inodzoserwa. Iyi mhando yehove dzemabhonzo dzinozivikanwa seyakateedzana hermaphrodite hove.

Vanhurume vanoshaya nhengo yekumanikidza sezvo kusangana kuri kwekunze, kunze kwekumwe kusarudzika umo vanhurume vane zvimbi zvemukati izvo zvinoita kuti kuita kwemukati kwekusangana kuvepo.

Ruzhinji ihove oviparous, kunyangwe zvakajairika kuti zviitiko zvehove dzemabhonzo zvionekwe ovhonziparous y viviparous. Dzimwe mhando dzehove dzemabhonzo dzinotarisira mazai adzo kudzamara dzava kutsemuka uye vana vazvarwa, asi izvi hazviwanzo kuitika.

Iyo yakasarudzika nguva yekuberekesa inoenderana zvakanyanya pane mhando.

Musiyano uripo pakati pehove dzebony nehove dzizere

Rwizi hove

Sezvakatsanangurwa kana kudomwa muchinyorwa chino, mukati mepasi rose rehove, tinowana mhando mbiri huru: hove dzemabhonzo y hove dzemhashu. Kunyangwe pangave nekufanana kwakawanda pakati pavo, kune zvimwe kusiyana zvinovaparadzanisa.

Bony hove zviri pachena kuti dzine skeleton pfupa muviri nepo iyo yehove yeti cartilaginous iri inoumbwa ne cartilage.

Mune hove dzemabhonzo hongu iyo kushambira dundira uye a muswe fin akaenzana lobes. Muchiitiko chehove dzemhashu, hapana kushambira dundira and the muswe fin une lobes akasarudzika.

Zviyero zviri muhove dzemabhonzo ndezve cycloid mhando. Hove dze Cartilaginous vane miviri yavo yakafukidzwa nezviyero zvidiki zve placoid mhando kusapindirana.

Kana iri yekufema, kune mumwezve musiyano. Muhove dzemabhonzo mune mana mana emagill uye gill operculumNekudaro, izvi hazvisizvo mune hove dzemhasuru. Ava varipo mashanu kana matanhatu mapaundi ekuvhurika kwegill uye hapana gill operculum.

Mienzaniso yehove dzemabhonzo

Boka retrout kushambira

Kunyanya, hove zhinji dzatinoziva ndedze "kirabhu" yehove dzemabhonzo. Huwandu hukuru hwemienzaniso inogona kupihwa. Heano mamwe acho: grouper, sardines, saumoni, hake, carp, mackerel, gungwa bass, bonito, salmon, bhiza mackerel, nezvimwe..

Kupatsanurwa kwehove dzebony

Hove dziri mugungwa

Mukati memhuri yega yehove dzemabhonzo, tinogona kusimbisa kusiyanisa kutsva kana kupatsanura, vane protagonists vane vanogarling and the sarcopterygios.

ari vanogarling Ihove dzemabhonzo dzakaburitsa zvimbi zvakagadzirwa nemapfupa. Dehenya rayo rinonyanya kugadzirwa necartilaginous tishu. Ivo vane maviri gill akavhurika akachengetedzwa neoperculum, uye zviyero zvinonamira uye zvakashata. Ivo havana mhino yemukati kana cloaca.

ari sarcopterygios ihove dzemabhonzo dzine kana zvimbi zvinyama zvine nyama kana nyama. Machende aya akafanana chaizvo nemapini emamwe maamphibian, inova chiratidzo chakajeka cheshanduko. Mukati mavo, tine chimwezve chidimbu, pakati pehove coelacantiforms, akatumidzwa zita rekuti richivechs, nehove mapapu o Dipneas.

Tinovimba isu takakwanisa kukuzivisai kuboka iri remhuka dziripo muzuva redu nhasi uye muhupenyu hwedu hwezuva nezuva, asi izvo zvatingangodaro tisingazive zvimwe zvinhu zvinoita kuti dzive dzakakosha kwazvo hove.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Iva wekutanga kutaura

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

*

*

  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako