Ibhayoloji kunye nendlela yokuphila yabacwangcisi

Izicwangciso zolwandle

Kule nqaku siza kuhamba ngokuchaza iintlanzi ukuya kwiintshulube zolwandle. Kule meko, siza kuthetha abacwangcisi. Baliqela leentshulube (kungoko igama labo) iklasi yabo ngaphambili yayiyiTurbellaria. Ngesi sizathu, bakwabizwa ngokuba zii-mobsters. Malunga neentlobo ezingama-4500 ziyaziwa ngezi ntshulube, kungoko ukubaluleka kwazo. Uninzi lwazo lungamanzi kwaye luhlala kwindalo ye-benthic. Kukho ezinye iintlobo ezilungiselelwe iimeko ezifumileyo.

Ukuba ufuna ukuyazi nzulu le mibungu yaselwandle, kule post siza kungena kuyo ibhayoloji, ukuhlelwa kunye nemowudi yediliyaukuya. Ngaba ungathanda ukudibana nabo?

Ukwahlula

Iimpawu ngokubanzi

Iklasi yaseTurbellaria yathathelwa ingqalelo njengeqela leentshulube ezathatha zonke ezo zingezizo iiparasiti ngokungqongqo. Nangona kunjalo, ngokuhamba kwexesha kunye nokukhula kwetaxonomy, le klasi iye yanyamalala. Ke ngoko, ii-planarians zijongwa njengamaqela e-paraphyletic afaka i-flatworms ezingezizo i-parasites kunye ne-acellomorphs. Olu tshintsho lubangelwa luphononongo olukhulu lwendlela yokuzivelela yezi zilwanyana.

Iimpawu eziphambili

Ukwahlulahlula izicwangciso

Ziyi-invertebrates ezinobungakanani obuncinci kakhulu kunye nobude obuguqukayo. Singazifumana iisampulu ezisusela kwiimilimitha ukuya kwi-600mm ubude. Iiplanethi ezinkulu zenziwe njengegqabi okanye iribhoni.

Uninzi lwezi ntlobo zinamanzi. Iintlobo zeBenthic ngabo bahlala elwandle. Ngoko ke, ezi ntshulube zithathwa eziphilayo benthic. Ngokubhekisele kwi-morphology yayo, sinokufumana inani elikhulu le-cilia kuwo wonke umzimba.

I-cilia isetyenziselwa ukwenza iintshukumo ezincinci ezenza ii-microscopes ezijikelezayo.

Iyafana neentshulube

Iintshulube

Izicwangciso zeeplanethi zifana ne-flatworms morphologically ngokuba ne-symmetry yamazwe amabini. Oku kuthetha ukuba bane-longitudinal axis eyahlula amalungu omzimba alinganayo. Ziyi-triblical kuba zinoluhlu lwesithathu lweeseli ezingezizo ezombungu. Kuyafana nakubantu, singabantu beebhayibhile.

Ngokungafaniyo nezinye izinto ezine-symmetry yamazwe amabini, iiplanethi kunye ne-flatworms azinangaphakathi. Oku kungenxa yokuthamba kwayo. Abanayo coelom, yiyo loo nto ke behlelwa njenge-cellophane.

Olunye uphawu olwahlula i-flatworms kwezinye iintlobo kukungabikho kweenkqubo zokuphefumla kunye nokujikeleza kwegazi. Ngokungabinazo ezi zixhobo, amandla abo okutshintsha ioksijini kunye nekhabhon dayoksayidi nokusingqongileyo kuncitshisiwe kwaye kuncitshisiwe. Isizathu sokuba ubungakanani bayo bube buncinci. Ukuba ibinomzimba omkhulu, ngeyonyuse iimfuno zokutshintshiselana ngegesi kunye nehlabathi langaphandle kwaye ayinakuphila. Ezinkulu zithe tyaba ukuze ungatshintshi olu tshintshiselwano lwendawo enkulu engaphezulu.

Ke ukuba ezi zixhobo, ziyitshintsha njani ioksijini kunye ne-CO2? Benza ngomzimba wabo ngaphezulu. Ukongeza, i-digestive tract ine-ramifications ukuze izondlo zikwazi ukufikelela ngokulula kuwo onke amalungu omzimba. Olu tshintshiselwano ngeegesi kulusu lwenza ukuba abacwangcisi babe sesichengeni sokuphelelwa ngamanzi emzimbeni. Ngesi sizathu kufuneka bahlale kwindawo yasemanzini nofumileyo apho kunzima ukufumana amanzi emzimbeni.

Inkqubo ye-nervous igxile entloko apho kuvela iindawo ezininzi. Ukusuka kula masebe e-ganglia amayeza emithambo asasazeke emzimbeni wonke. Kwimeko apho bonakaliswe khona, banokuwuphucula umzimba wabo ukuba baphulukene nelinye ilungu. Bayakwazi nokuhlaziya intloko.

Iimpawu ezikhethekileyo zabacwangcisi

Iintshulube ezisicaba

Njengoko ubona, ezi zilwanyana zikhetheke ngokukodwa kwaye zahlukile. Uninzi lwazo lunobomi obukhululekileyo, ngokungafaniyo neentshulube ezithe tyaba ezizizifunxi-gazi. Ukuhlala kulwandle kufuneka batye ezinye izilwanyana ezincinci okanye ukubola kwezinto eziphilayo.

Kukho ezinye izicwangciso zeeplani ezihamba rhoqo kwiindawo eziselunxwemeni kwaye zifikelele kwiintlobo ezahlukeneyo kwiimpawu zekorale. Banokubonakala besenza iindawo ezithile ezinkulu. Ezinye iindidi ziye zahlalisa iindawo ezihlala kuzo amanzi amatsha kwaye ezinye ziye zahlengahlengiswa ukuze zibe kwimeko yokufuma emhlabeni. Abo bazama ukuhlala emhlabeni bakhetha indawo ezimnyama nezinomswakama. Oku kunokugutyungelwa yinkunkuma kwaye phantse yonke imikhwa yasebusuku, apho ukufuma kugcinwa ngcono.

Abanayo cuticle kunye nomphezulu womzimba ungqimba olunye lweeseli ezine-cilia. Kwezinye iintlobo ezinkulu, azinayo i-cilia. Ngaphantsi kolusu inoluhlu oluncinci kakhulu lwezihlunu kunye namanye amadlala adityaniswe nomphezulu ngembobo. Bahlala befihla i-mucus kunye nezinye izinto ezibanceda bahlale befumile ngalo lonke ixesha.

Ukuhamba banokhetho oluninzi. Izilwanyana ezincinci zasemanzini zisebenzisa i-cilia kulusu lwazo ukuzikhupha emanzini kunye nokuhambahamba. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ezinkulu ezingenayo i-cilia kufuneka zenze ukunyakaza kwemisipha ukukhasa okanye ukuhamba emanzini. Abo bahlala emhlabeni bayakwazi ukuphosa imisonto yencindi ukwazi ukunyuka iindawo eziphakamileyo ezinjengamatye namasebe.

Abanye abacwangcisi banezakhiwo ezifanayo neepicules zekorale kunye neziponji (izinto ezinamacala amdaka okanye ezinqabileyo) kwaye zinika umzimba weplanaria inkangeleko yonyaka.

Ukuveliswa kwakhona

Izicwangciso zokuzala

Abacwangcisi banakho ukuzala kwakhona ngokwesini kunye nangokwasemzimbeni. Ezinye zazo zivelisa iziqwengana ngemizimba yazo. Bayakwazi ukuzibandakanya ngokwamacandelo anqamlezileyo. Banokukwenza ngokungaxhamliyo ngokuhluma.

Nangona kunjalo, Olona hlobo laziwayo nolona luqhelekileyo lokuzala kukuziphatha ngokwesondo. Ukwenza oku, bonke abacwangcisi kufuneka bachumise amaqanda ngaphakathi ngokulinganisa nomnye umntu. Zonke zi-hermaphrodites ukuze zikwazi ukuzichumisa.

Abacwangcisi abangenayo i-coelom abanayo i-gonads. Kodwa ezinye zazo zinesibini okanye nangaphezulu kwee-ovari kunye namasende. Iityhubhu zeSeminiferous ziqala ukusuka kumasende aphuma aye kwiipenise zezihlunu.

Kwiintlobo ezininzi amaqanda aqandusela ukunika imizekelo efana kakhulu neyabantu abadala, kodwa enobukhulu obuncinci. Kwezinye iintlobo amaqanda anika imibungu evuthwa kwimeko yasemanzini.

Njengoko ubona, ezi zilwanyana zikhethekileyo kwaye zinomdla.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

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