Iintlanzi ezingamathambo

Iintlanzi ze salmon

Emanzini ahlala kwiilwandle zethu, imilambo kunye neelwandle, kukho iintlobo ngeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo. Mhlawumbi, isihloko esona sinovelwano kubo bonke sesentlanzi. Ezi zidalwa zikhethekileyo zisinika iintlobo ngeentlobo zeemilo, imibala, njl.njl., Nangona kunjalo, kwaye ngaphandle kwale meko, uninzi lwazo ngamalungu eqela elikhethekileyo esinika igama lalo intlanzi emathambo.

Yintoni intlanzi emathambo?

Iintlanzi zamathambo zezo ntlanzi Umqolo kunye gnathostomes (amathambo omqolo obonakaliswe ngokuba nemihlathi ecacisiweyo). Banikwe amathambo angaphakathi emathambo, yiyo loo nto igama labo. Ziyaziwa ngokuba Osteictians.

Iintlanzi zeCarp

Amathambo angaphakathi emathambo yeyona meko iphambili eyahlula kwelinye iqela elikhulu leentlanzi: iintlanzi zentlanzi. Njengomdla, kufuneka kuthiwe kukho iqela lesithathu leentlanzi, elenziwe ngeentlanzi ngaphandle kwemihlathi. Ezi zokugqibela zinqabile kwaye kukho inani elincinci kakhulu leentlobo phakathi kwazo, umzekelo, izibane.

I-Bony fish, ubukhulu becala, ziintlanzi esiqhele ukuzibona, okt, zezona ntlobo zixhaphakileyo ezinje ngesalmon yesiqhelo, itrout, intlanzi ye-aquarium, njl. Ngokuchaseneyo, iintlanzi zentlanzi, xa sithetha ngokubanzi, ngookrebe, imitha kunye nemantas.

Ezona mpawu ziphambili zentlanzi emathambo

Intlanzi iPiranha

Amathambo eentlanzi ezingamathambo ahlulwe aba ngamacandelo aliqela: the amathambo yezihlunu, Ngoyena uhlala kwindawo esembindini; amathambo cephalic ahlala entloko; i Amathambo ommandla, leyo ikufutshane nephiko le-pelvic kunye ne-thoracic; kwaye i uhlaka lwamathambo, yeyiphi na eyenza iifom.

Mhlawumbi uninzi lomahluko phakathi kwentlanzi ye-bony ne-cartilaginous yangaphakathi. Iintlanzi ezingamathambo azinayo valve yomoya, kodwa banazo pyloric amadoda angaboniyo kwaye abanako oko ndlala yoxande.

Inkqubo yokuphefumla yeentlanzi ezinamathambo inazo Iiglu ebekwe ngaphakathi kwigumbi le-gill, kwaye ugqunywe luhlobo lwe-operculum etyhila kuphela ukuvulwa okuncinci kwe-brachial kwicala ngalinye lesilwanyana. Kunqabile, nangona kunokwenzeka, ukuba i-preoperculum ivele, kodwa sinyanzelisa ukuba yinto engaqhelekanga. Iigilifu ezithe zaqatshelwa, kufanele kuqatshelwe ukuba azihlukaniswanga yi-septa.

Kwezinye iintlobo zeentlanzi ezingamathambo, i qubha isinyi iguqukele kumphunga. Le mphunga ibanceda bahlale bedada, bahambe ngokuthe nkqo.

Umlomo wezi zilwanyana ubizwa ngokuba ngumlomo wokugcina, okwaziyo ukuhamba ngokuchanekileyo, ngakumbi enkosi amathambo e-dermal achaziweyo yenziwa ngayo. Amazinyo aqhelekile ukongeza la mathambo e-dermal, kwaye kufuneka kuthiwe ukwaphuka okanye ukulahleka kwawo kuba ngumonakalo ongenakulungiswa.

Olunye uphawu kukuba ukongeza kumathambo angaphakathi, banamathambo kwiindawo zolusu lwabo njengezikali. Xa kuchongwa ukuba ingaba intlanzi ethambo-luhlobo lolunye uhlobo okanye olunye, la manqanaba, ngakumbi lawo afunyanwa kuwo Icala elisecaleni nelinqamlezayo, banokuba luncedo olukhulu kuthi.

Kwimiba yamaphiko, iintlanzi ezinamathambo zineqela iimpiko zangaseseIsibini amaphiko esinqe o abaxhasi (zingqamene ngokwemilo yomzimba kunye nesimo sayo) kunye a okanye iimpiko ezininzi zangasemva okanye ezimpundu. Kuxhomekeka kwindawo ekukho kuyo amaphiko e-pelvic kunye ne-thoracic, iintlobo ezine zeentlanzi ezinobungqina ziyavela: isisus (ukuba amaphiko e-pelvic ahlala esemva kweempiko zethora), isifuba (ukuba amaphiko e-pelvic aphakame ngokulinganayo okanye kancinci ngasemva kwethora), iyoga (ukuba amaphiko e-pelvic aphambi kwamaphiko e-thoracic) kwaye, ekugqibeleni, apodal (Zizo ezo ntlanzi zamathambo zingenamaphiko e-pelvic).

Ukutya

Isalmon yomlambo

Ukucoca amazinyo, oko kukuthi, amazinyo, kunye nokumila kwenkqubo yokwetyisa kuthathe isigqibo xa kuchazwa ukutya kwezi ntlanzi. Ngokwesiqhelo, zihlala zizilwanyana ezitya inyama, enesisu esikhulu, esinee-pyloric cecum ezininzi, kunye nethumbu elifutshane nelithe nkqo.

Nangona kunjalo, kukho iintlanzi ezinamathambo ukutya kwazo kungohlobo olutyisayo, isisu sayo silula, ngamanye amaxesha esahlulahlulayo, sivelise isisu esiqhelekileyo kunye nenye ityumzi. Ngokwenxalenye yayo, amathumbu ayinkimbinkimbi kwaye made kakhulu.

Ukuveliswa kwakhona

Ibhanki yeentlanzi

Ukuveliswa kwakhona kwentlanzi emathambo zesondo, ebonisa abantu besini esahlukileyo. Kufuneka kuthiwe kwiindidi ezininzi zeentlanzi ezinamathambo kunzima kakhulu ukwahlula phakathi kwamadoda nabasetyhini, kuba azibonisi mfanekiso ucacileyo wesini. Kwelinye icala, kukho ezinye iintlobo apho isini, ekuhambeni kwexesha, siguqulwa. Olu hlobo lweentlanzi zamathambo lwaziwa njengentlanzi ye-hermaphrodite elandelelanayo.

Amadoda awanalo ilungu elikhutshelayo kuba ukuchumisa kungaphandle, ngaphandle kwakwezinye iimeko apho abesilisa banamaphiko ezimpundu enza ukuba inkqubo yokuchumisa yangaphakathi yenzeke.

Uninzi lwazo ziintlanzi oviparous, nangona kuyinto eqhelekileyo ukubakho kweentlanzi ezingamathambo sivuyisile y viviparous. Ezinye iindidi zeentlanzi ezingamathambo ziyawanyamekela amaqanda azo de aqandusele kwaye amantshontsho azalwe, kodwa oku akuqhelekanga.

Ixesha elithandwayo lokuzalisa lixhomekeke kakhulu kwiintlobo.

Umahluko phakathi kwentlanzi yebhony kunye neentlanzi ezinobunzima

Iintlanzi zomlambo

Njengoko kuchaziwe okanye kucatshulwe kweli nqaku, kwiqela leentlanzi zehlabathi, sifumana iintlobo ezimbini eziphambili: intlanzi emathambo y Intlanzi enkulu. Nangona kunokubakho ukufana okuninzi phakathi kwabo, zininzi ngakumbi mahluko eyahlula kubo.

Iintlanzi zebony ngokucacileyo zinayo ithambo Umzimba wethambo Ngelixa lentlanzi ye-cartilaginous is yenziwe ngu intlala.

Kwintlanzi emathambo ewe qubha isinyi kunye umsila wokugqibela ulobe olinganayo. Kwimeko yeentlanzi ezinobunzima, akukho sithuba sokuqubha kunye umsila wokugqibela unee-lobes ezahlukileyo.

Izikali kwiintlanzi ezingamathambo zezi uhlobo lwecycloid. Intlanzi ye-Cartilaginous inomzimba ogqunywe ngamaxolo amancinci e- Uhlobo lwe-placoid engadluli.

Ngokuphefumla, kukho omnye umahluko. Kwiintlanzi ezinamathambo kukho izibini ezine zegill kunye ne-gill operculumNangona kunjalo, oku akunjalo kwiintlanzi zentlanzi. Ezi zikhoyo ezintlanu okanye ezintandathu izibini zokuvuleka kwegill kwaye akukho gill operculum.

Imizekelo yentlanzi emathambo

Iqela lokuqubha kwetrout

Ngokuyintloko, uninzi lweentlanzi esizaziyo zezika "mbutho" weentlanzi ezingamathambo. Inani elininzi lemizekelo linokunikwa. Nazi ezinye: iqela, isardadi, isalmon, ihake, ikhaphethi, imackerel, ulwandle, ibonito, isalmon, ihashe mackerel, njl..

Udidi lweentlanzi ezingamathambo

Iintlanzi zolwandle

Ngaphakathi kosapho lweentlanzi ezinamathambo, sinokuseka umahluko omtsha okanye ukwahlulahlula, abanobuchule kunye ne zintengxi kunye sarcopterygios.

Los zintengxi Ziintlanzi ezingamathambo ezikhuphe imiphetho eyenziwe ngamathambo. Ukhakhayi lwayo lwenziwe ikakhulu ziithambo zentliziyo. Banemingxunyana emibini ye-gill ekhuselweyo yi-operculum, kwaye izikali ziyamangalisa kwaye zirhabaxa. Abanayo impumlo yangaphakathi okanye i-cloaca.

Los sarcopterygios Ziyimithambo yeentlanzi ezinamaphiko okuba yinyama okanye inyama yelungu. Ezi ziphiko zifana kakhulu namaphiko ezinye izilwanyana zasemanzini, ezithi zibe luphawu olucacileyo lwenkqubo yendaleko. Ngaphakathi kubo, sinokunye ukwahlulahlula, phakathi kweentlanzi coelacantiforms, wabizwa ngokuba ngu coelacanths, neentlanzi imiphunga o Iidipneas.

Siyathemba ukuba sikwazile ukukwazisa kweli qela lezilwanyana ezikhoyo kule mihla yethu nakubomi bethu bemihla ngemihla, kodwa esingazaziyo izinto ezithile ezizenza zibe ziintlanzi ezikhethekileyo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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